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Wheat Management Calendar

 

 

 Fall Management Decisions (part 1 of 2)
     July  August   September  September 
          Germination-Emergence
  Crop management
(Amanda Silva)   
Variety selection
Use the OSU variety trial results and field history to select varieties adapted to your region and production system. It is recommended to plant varieties with different maturity ranges and resistant to the most prevalent diseases in your area.
      Optimum time for planting dual-purpose system

Planting around mid-September reduce risks from Hessian fly infestations and allow time for  good forage growth
  Prepare seed bed

Buy good-quality seeds
    Select varieties without high temperature germination sensitivity
Planting around mid-September reduce risks from Hessian fly infestations and allow time for  good forage growth
  Control volunteer wheat

Volunteer wheat must be completely dead for two weeks before planting a new wheat crop. Volunteer wheat can be killed with herbicides or tillage

Volunteer wheat work as a "green bridge" for mites that can transmitt viruses diseases (WSMV, HPV, TrMV) and aphids (BYDV).  Incresase risk from Hessia Fly instations.

 

     
             
  Nutrient management
(Brian Arnall & Hailing Zhang) 
soil sampling
Drill sampler
      Apply N, P and K for dual-purpose system
           
  Apply lime if soil test recommends

Apply lime in acid soils early in the season, since soil acidity is a wide spread yield limiting factor in the state.

Wheat varieties differ in their ability to grow under low soil pH. Optimum soil pH range for wheat is between 5.5 and 7.0
  Add N-rich strips
             
  Insects
(Tom Royer)
        Scout for fall armyworm

The suggested treatment threshold is 2-3 larvae per linear foot of row in wheat with active feeding
           
           
             
  Diseases
(Bob Hunger)
  If early planting, consider seed treatment      
             
  Weeds
(Misha Manuchehri) 
Preplant burndown herbicides or tillage prior to planting   Apply PRE or delayed PRE herbicides
 

 

 

       
           

 

 Fall Management Decisions (part 2 of 2)
    October October November December
    Germination-Emergence Tillering Tillering/Dormancy
  Crop management
(Amanda Silva)   
  Optimum time for planting grain-only system Assess crown root development before grazing Environment and genetics influence tillering capacity
  Select varieties without high temperature germination sensitivity

Planting around mid-September reduce risks from Hessian fly infestations and allow time for  good forage growth
3 leaves developed before tillering start and crown roots developing Turn out cattle Assess plant stands

Plants may shown some cold injury, but should grow out of it
  Perform stand count   Test wheat forage for nutritive quality if grazed
           
  Nutrient management
(Brian Arnall & Hailing Zhang) 
  Apply N, P and K grain-only system Use a GreenSeeker to assess crop N status 
         
  Add N-rich strips
           
  Insects
(Tom Royer)
Scout for fall armyworm

The suggested treatment threshold is 2-3 larvae per linear foot of row in wheat with active feeding
   
         
    photo-2-fall-armyworm  photo-2 fall armywormsymptoms Scout for greenbug
           
  Diseases
(Bob Hunger)
       
           
  Weeds
(Misha Manuchehri) 
Apply PRE or delayed PRE herbicides Apply PRE/POST herbicides for fall/winter emerging weeds  
   photo-8 italian ryegrass     
         

 

Spring Management Decisions (part 1 of 2)
  Management
January February March March
 

Dormancy Green-up Jointing Flag leaf emergence
      green-up    

 

Crop management
(Amanda Silva) 
Varieties require from 2 to 6 weeks of vernalization (with T<50F)  Start leaf elongation Plant erect and first node  
    Assess First Hollow Stem (FHS)

Growth stage which occurs just prior to jointing. Time to remove cattle from the field if producer is in a dual purpose system


 


Assess First Hollow Stem Assess spring-freeze injury

The later it occurs during head and grain development the more it affects grain yield
healthy head

(temperature <24F can harm the developing head)
    Remove cattle before FHS if in DP system
 
Remove cattle before FHS if in DP system  
    Count tillers per plant and estimate heads per sq. ft. Size Compair head  
  Test wheat forage for nutritive quality if grazed   
 
Test wheat forage for nutritive quality if grazed   Test wheat forage for nutritive quality if grazed  
           
  Nutrient management

(Brian Arnall & Hailin Zhang)


top-dress N application I

  top-dress N application II  
  Use a GreenSeeker to assess crop N status Use a GreenSeeker to assess crop N status Use a GreenSeeker to assess crop N status

Aphid numbers average 10-20 per tiller, figure on a 5% loss, if 20-40 per tiller, figure a 7% loss, and if aphids are more than 40 per tiller, figure a 9% yield loss.
  Add N-rich strips      
           
  Insects 
(Tom Royer)
Scout for army cutworm

Management of foliar diseases is critical to maintaining yield potential and producing quality grain
    Scout for aphids; 
         
           
   Diseases
(Bob Hunger)   
  Apply fungicide for foliar disease management;  
        strip rust  septoria-leaf-bloch
   
         
           
  Weeds
(Misha Manuchehri)

 
photo-8-1-horseweed-marestail Apply PRE/POST herbicides for winter/spring emerging weeds
    Be cautious of products that cannot be applied past jointing or flag leaf emergence.  
        photo-8-2-mustard
Spring Management Decisions (part 2 of 2)
  Management
April April May June
 

Boot Heading Grain filling Physiological maturity
     photo-3-5-wheat-boot    

 

Crop management
(Amanda Silva) 
       
  Assess spring-freeze  injury

The later it occurs during head and grain development the more it affects grain yield
Spring  Freeze 
Attend to field days!
plot map take one

Evaluate varieties for next season
 Harvest
         
      Evaluate varieties for next season   
         
           
  Nutrient management

(Brian Arnall & Hailin Zhang)


       
      Head scab (Fusarium head blight) reduces yield and causes significant problems by resulting in grain with high levels of mycotoxins  
         
           
  Insects 
(Tom Royer)
 Scout for armyworm    
  Scout for aphids;       
         
           
   Diseases
(Bob Hunger)   
Apply fungicide for foliar disease management;     
         
      Apply fungicide to manage head scab    
           
  Weeds
(Misha Manuchehri)

 
  Scout fields for identification of winter annual grass weeds that are headed out. 
  Be cautious of products that cannot be applied past jointing or flag leaf emergence.  Harvest aid herbicides may be considered.
        photo-8-3-rescuegras 
photo-8-4-true-cheatgrass-seed-head

 

 

 Crop Management:  
ID Title URL
DASNR App Listing Wheat Variety Selection Tool app   http://www.dasnr.okstate.edu/apps
CR-2143 2018-2019 Small Grains Variety Performance Tests; https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/2018-2019-small-grains-variety-performance-tests.html
PSS-2142 Wheat Variety Comparison; https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/wheat-variety-comparison.html
PSS-2256 Factors Affecting Wheat Germination and Emergence in Hot Soils; https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/factors-affecting-wheat-germination-and-emergence-in-hot-soils.html
PSS-2147 First Hollow Stem: A Critical Wheat Growth Stage for Dual-purpose Producers; https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/first-hollow-stem-a-critical-wheat-growth-stage-for-dual-purpose-producers.html
PSS-2157 Impact of Grazing on Wheat Grain Yield https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/impact-of-grazing-on-wheat-grain-yield.html

 

 

 Nutrient Management: Plant and Soil Sciences publications;
Factsheet ID Title URL
CR-2277 Applying Nitrogen-Rich Strips https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/applying-nitrogen-rich-strips.html
PSS-2278 Using the GreenSeeker Handheld Sensor and Sensor-Based Nitrogen Rate Calculator https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/using-the-greenseeker-handheld-sensor-and-sensor-based-nitrogen-rate-calculator.html
PSS-2207 How to Get a Good Soil Sample https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/how-to-get-a-good-soil-sample.html
PSS-2225 OSU Soil Test Interpretations https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/osu-soil-test-interpretations.html

 

 

 IPM- Pests, Diseases and Weeds
Factsheet ID Title URL
EPP-7086; Hessian Fly Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/hessian-fly-management-in-oklahoma-winter-wheat.html
CR-7088; Effect of Planting Date and Seed Treatment on Diseases and Insect Pests of Wheat https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/effect-of-planting-date-and-seed-treatment-on-diseases-and-insect-pests-of-wheat.html
EPP-7328; Wheat Streak Mosaic, High Plains Diseases and Triticum Mosaic: Three Mite-transmitted Virus Diseases of Wheat in Oklahoma  https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/wheat-streak-mosaic-high-plains-disease-and-triticum-mosaic-three-virus-diseases-of-wheat-in-oklahoma.html
PSS-7668; Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/foliar-fungicides-and-wheat-production-in-oklahoma-march-2016.html
PSS-2138; Split Versus Single Applications of Fungicides to Control Foliar Wheat Diseases https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/split-versus-single-applications-of-fungicides-to-control-foliar-wheat-diseases.html
PSS-2136; Considerations When Rotating Wheat Behind Corn https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/considerations-when-rotating-wheat-behind-corn.html
PSS-2145; Fusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) of Wheat: Questions and Answers https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/fusarium-head-blight-head-scab-of-wheat-questions-and-answers.html
PSS 2791; Herbicide Programs for Italian Ryegrass Control in Winter Wheat https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/herbicide-programs-for-italian-ryegrass-control-in-winter-wheat.html
PSS-2787; Weedy Mustards of Oklahoma https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/weedy-mustards-of-oklahoma.html
PSS-2793; Horseweed Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/horseweed-management-in-oklahoma-winter-wheat.html
PSS-2188 Harvest Aid Weed Management in Wheat https://extension.okstate.edu/fact-sheets/harvest-aid-weed-management-in-wheat.html

 

 

 

Developed by the Oklahoma State University Extension Team

Amanda de Oliveira Silva
 Small Grains Extension Specialist

Brian Arnall
 Precision Nutrient Management Specialist
 
Hailin Zhang
 Nutrient Management Specialist
 
Tom Royer
 Extension Entomologist
 
Bob Hunger
 Extension Wheat Pathologist
 
Misha Manuchehri
 Small Grains Extension Weed Specialist

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