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Management of Insect and Mite Pests in Small Grains

There are several arthropod pests that damage small grains sporadically throughout the region. Pesticides should not be a substitute for good agronomic practices or used as “preventative insurance”. Pesticide misuse can cause pest resurgence issues and is rarely economically or environmentally justifiable. Many small grain pest problems can be managed by following good cultural practices, such as selecting varieties that are adapted to Oklahoma growing conditions, planting at an optimal date and providing proper fertilization and good weed control.


The information herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.
Pesticide recommendations in this publication were correct as of the “Modified Date" but always check the label that came with the purchased insecticide for the most current rates and restrictions.


The first name listed is the trade name of a product registered for use in corn for the listed pest. The name in (parentheses) listed below the trade name is the name of the active ingredient. The active ingredient name is provided because in many cases, there are other registered products containing the same active ingredient that may cost less, so producers should compare prices.


The number [in brackets] following a product is its Mode of Action number [MOA]. The more frequently insecticides with the same MOA are used, the more likely resistance will occur. This number provides an easy way to select different modes of action to avoid selecting for pests that are resistant to a certain mode of action.


Refer to the following OSU publications for additional information.

 

CR-7088 Effect of Planting Date and Seed Treatment on Diseases and Insect Pests of Wheat


CR-7668 Foliar Fungicides and Wheat Production in Oklahoma

 

EPP-7086 Hessian Fly Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat

 

EPP-7093 Mites in Small Grains


EPP-7094 Common Small Grain Caterpillars in Oklahoma


EPP-7196 Grasshopper Management in Rangeland, Pasture and Crops

 

EPP-7328 Wheat Streak Mosaic, High Plains Disease and Triticum Mosaic: Three virus diseases of wheat in Oklahoma.

 

PSS 2132 No-till Wheat Production in Oklahoma

 

PSS-2139 Farmer-saved Wheat Seed in Oklahoma: Questions and Answers

 

PSS-2142 2013 Wheat Variety Comparison

 

PSS-2777 Clearfield Wheat Production Systems in Oklahoma

 

Management of Insect and Mite Pests in Small Grains

 

Pest, Damage and Treatment Threshold Insecticide, Formulation, and [MOA Group] and (lb active ingredient (Active Ingredient) Rate of Product and (lb active ingredient) per Acre
Aphids Planting Time  
Corn leaf aphid: blue green with black legs, cornicles and antennae; antennae less than ½ length of body Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) 0.75 to 1.33 fl oz/cwt seed
English grain aphid: lime green, “spindly legs” with black antennae, cornicles and
legs. Antennae more than ½ length of body.
Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) 1 to 3 fl oz/cwt seed 3.4 fl oz/cwt seed
Bird cherry oat aphid: olive green with brownish-red spot on back around base of cornicles. Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) 0.75 to1.79 fl oz/cwt seed
  Post-Plant  
  Besiege [3,28 (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 6.0 to 10.0 fl oz
Rice root aphid is similar in appearance to bird cherry oat aphid, but tends to feed on crown, beneath the soil. Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + gamma-cyhalothrin) 7 to 13 fl oz
Greenbug: See greenbug section Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + lambda-cyhalothrin) 6 to 13 fl oz
Russian wheat aphid: see Russian wheat aphid section. Dimethoate 4EC [1B]  (dimethoate) 0.5 to 0.75 pt (0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/A)
Bird cherry oat aphid can reduce yield, and is an important vector
of Barley Yellow Dwarf virus.
Karate/Warrior II [3]  (lambda-cyhalothrin) 1.92 fl oz (0.03 lb ai/A)
Threshold: Treat for bird cherry oat aphids if numbers exceed 30
per stem. Consider using low rate of seed treatment if forage + grain. There is no threshold for English grain aphid, for corn leaf aphid, or rice root aphid.
Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
0.5 to 1 pt (0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/A)
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 1.5 pt (0.93 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 3.2 to 4.0 pt (0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz (0.01 to 0.015 lb ai/A)
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 7.0 to 14.0 fl oz (0.09 to 0.137 lb ai/A)
  Transform WG [4C] (sulfoxaflor) 0.75 to 1.5 oz (0.023 to 0.047 lb ai/A)
Army cutworm    
Gray striped caterpillar that curls up in to a tight “C” when disturbed. Evident from January through March. Baythroidr XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1 to 1.8 fl oz. (0.016 to 0.028 lb ai/A)
Damage: Cuts plants at soil line,
can kill plants if it enters the crown.
Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 5.0 to 8.0 fl oz
Threshold: Tow to three caterpillars per foot of row if  conditions are dry, if moisture is  adequate, four to five per foot of row. Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + gamma-cyhalothrin) 13 to 25 fl oz
  Fastac CS [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 1.3 to 3.8 fl oz (0.008 to 0.025 lbi ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) 0.96 to 1.60 fl oz (0.015 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3]  (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.28 to 4.0 fl oz 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (0.008 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 1.92 to 3.20 fl oz (0.0075 to 0.0125 lb ai/A)
  Stallion [1B, 3] (chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
3.75 to 11.75 fl oz
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 1.0 to 1.8 fl oz (0.016 to 0.028 lb ai/A)
Armyworm    
  Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.014 to 0.019 lb ai/A)
  Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 6.0 to 10 fl oz
  Blackhawk [5] (spinosad) 1.1 to 3.3 oz (0.025 to 0.075 lb ai/A)
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 13 to 25 fl oz
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 11 to 25 fl oz
  Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 3.5 to 7.5 fl oz (0.045 to 0.098 lb ai)
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 1.8 to 3.8 fl oz (0.012 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3]  (lambda-cyhalothrin) 1.28 to 1.92 fl oz (0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/A)
  Lannate LV [1A] (methomyl) 0.75 to 1.5 pt (0.225 to 0.45 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.76 to 4.0 fl oz (0.011 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Prevathon [28]
(chlorantraniliprole)
14 to 20 fl oz (0.047 to 0.067 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CSr [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz (0.01 to 0.015 lb ai/A)
  Radiant [5] (spinetoram) 3 to 6 oz
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
9.25 to 11.75 fl oz
  Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.028 to 0.038 lb ai/A)
Brown wheat mite    
Tiny red to dark brown mites that feed on leaves, associated with dry, hot weather. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 7 to 13 fl oz
Damage: Plants appear to be drought stricken Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 6 to 13 fl oz
Threshold: Treat if mites and damage are evident Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) 0.33 to 0.5 pt (0.165 to 0.25 lb ai/A)
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
0.5 to 1 pt (0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/A)
Fall armyworm    
Large, brown, green or black caterpillar with stripes, up to 1.5 inches. Has a light colored, inverted “Y” on head. Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.014 to 0.019 lb ai/A)
Damage: Eat small plants in Fall Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 6.0 to 10 fl oz
Threshold: Treat if three to four larvae are found per foot of row AND feeding damage is evident. Blackhawk [5] (spinosad) 1.7 to 3.3 oz (0.04 to 0.075 lb ai/A)
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 13 to 25 fl oz
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 11 to 25 fl oz
  Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 3.5 to 7.5 fl oz (0.045 to 0.098 lb ai)
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 3.2 to 3.8 fl oz (0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) 1.28 to 1.92 fl oz (0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/A)
  Lannate LV [1A] (methomyl) 0.75 to 1.5 pt (0.225 to 0.45 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.76 to 4.0 fl oz (0.011 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Prevathon [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 14 to 20 fl oz (0.047 to 0.067 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CSr [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz (0.01 to 0.015 lb ai/A)
  Radiant [5] (spinetoram) 3 to 6 oz
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
9.25 to 11.75 fl oz
False wireworm/Wireworm    
Slender, hard bodied, wormlike larvae Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) 0.75 to 1.33 fl oz/cwt seed
Damage: Feed on kernels and newly germinated plants below the soil surface Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) 1 to 3 fl oz/cwt seed
Threshold: Treat if two larvae are found per foot2 Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) 0.25 to 1.79 fl oz/cwt seed
     
Grasshopper    
Damage: May occur in mid-May through early June and August through October. MAy destroy field margins in fall, or chew leaves and clip heads in spring. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 7 to 13 fl oz
Threshold: 11 to 20 per yd2 in vegetation next to wheat three to seven per yd2 in the field. See EPP-7196 for additional information Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 6 to 13 fl oz
See EPP-7196: Grasshopper Management in Rangeland, PAstures, and Crops Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 2.0 to 5.0 fl oz (0.026 to 0.065 lb ai)
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) 0.75 pt (0.375 lb ai/A)
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
0.5 to 1 pt (0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/A)
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 1.6 pt (0.93 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 3.2 to 4.0 fl oz (0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Prevathon [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 8 to 20 fl oz (0.027 to 0.067 lb ai/A)
  Sevin XLR [1A] (carbaryl) 0.5 to 1.5 qt (0.5 to 1.5 lb ai/A)
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
5.0 to 11.75 fl oz
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.028 to 0.038 fl oz/A)
Greenbug Planting Time  
Lime-green aphid with darker green stripe down back. Tips of legs, cornicles and most of antennae are black. Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) 0.75 to 1.33 fl oz/cwt seed
Damage: Injures plants by injecting toxin, leaves turn yellow, then die. Occasional problem in fall or spring; occurs more commonly in warm, dry conditions. Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) 1 to 3 fl oz/cwt seed 3.4 fl oz/cwt seed
Threshold: Treatment thresholds depend on value of crop, and cost of control. To determine treatment threshold, and obtain a Glance 'n Go sampling form, use the Cereal Aphid Expert System: http://entoplp.okstate.edu/gbweb/index3.htm Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) 0.75 to 1.79 fl oz/cwt seed
Or contact your local county OCES office for information on determining thresholds and sampling. Post-Plant  
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 7 to 13 fl oz
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 6 to 13 fl oz
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) 0.5 to 0.75 pt (0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) 1.92 fl oz (0.03 lb ai/A)
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
0.5 to 1 pt (0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/A)
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 1.5 pt (0.93 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 3.2 to 4 fl oz (0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 3.84 fl oz (0.015 lb ai/A)
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 7.0 to 14.0 fl oz (0.09 to 0.137 lb ai/A)
  Transform WG [4C] (sulfoxaflor) 0.75 to 1.5 oz (0.023 to 0.047 lb ai/A)
Hessian fly    
Small, fragile mosquito-like fly (adult) larva is whitish, shiny, about 3/16 inches. Flaxseed
(puparium) is 3/16 inches, dark brown, inserted at joint of stem.
Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) 0.75 to 1.33 fl oz/cwt seed
Damage: Stunts plants in fall, causes lodging of heads in spring. Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) 1 to 3 fl oz/cwt seed 3.4 fl oz/cwt seed
Threshold: No established threshold. Delayed planting will reduce the incidence of Hessian fly infestations, but there is no established "fly free" planting date for most of Oklahoma. Some wheat varieties are resistant to the common Hessian fly biotypes (A, B, C and D) found in Oklahoma. Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) 1.79 fl oz/cwt seed
See EPP-7086 Hessian Fly Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat    
     
Pale western cutworm    
Caterpillar is gray with no prominent stripes. Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.014 to 0.019 lb ai/A)
Damage: Cuts plants below soil surface. Generally found in the Oklahoma Panhandle, about two to three weeks later than army cutworm. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 13 to 25 fl oz
Threshold: Treat if two or more larvae are found per linear foot of row. Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 11 to 25 fl oz
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 1.8 to 3.8 fl oz (0.012 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) 0.96 to 1.6 fl oz (0.015 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 1.76 to 4.0 fl oz (0.011 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 1.92 to 3.20 fl oz (0.0075 to 0.0125 lb ai/A)
Russian wheat aphid Planting Time  
  Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) 0.75 to 1.33 fl oz/cwt seed
  Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) 1 to 3 fl oz/cwt seed
  Post-Plant  
  Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.014 to 0.019 lb ai/A)
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 7 to 13 fl oz
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 6 to 13 fl oz
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) 0.5 to 0.75 pt (0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/A)
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) 1.28 to 1.92 fl oz (0.02 to 0.03 lb ai/A)
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
0.5 to 1 pt (0.25 to 0.5 lb ai/A)
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 3.2 to 4.0 fl oz (0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/A)
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz (0.01 to 0.015 lb ai/A)
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
9.25 to 11.75 fl oz
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 7.0 to 14.0 fl oz (0.09 to 0.137 lb ai/A)
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.028 to 0.038 lb ai/A)
Wheat curl mite No effective chemical control is registered.  
Tiny sausage-shaped mites that feed on leaves and heads.    
Damage: They do not cause direct damage, but are a vector for Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus
and the virus that causes High Plains disease.
   
Threshold: None    
White grub No effective chemical control is registered.  
“C” shaped whitish grub with a tan head and swollen tip of abdomen, measuring up to 1½ inches.    
Damage: Feed on roots. Cause
stand loss, poor emergence
and thin stands.
   
Threshold: None    
Winter grain mite    
Tiny dark brown mites with red legs and a red spot on its abdomen. Prefer cool, moist climate, and are more active on cloudy days or evenings. Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 1.6 pt (1.25 lb ai/A)
Damage: Leaves appear stunted and silver colored.    
Threshold: No established threshold; treat if injury symptoms and mites are present. Day time temperatures that exceed 75 F will reduce populations.    
Pest, Damage and Treatment Threshold Insecticide, Formulation, and [MOA Group] and (lb active ingredient (Active Ingredient) Comments
Aphids Planting Time  
Corn leaf aphid: blue green with black legs, cornicles and antennae; antennae less than ½ length of body Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) Do not use treated seed as feed. Many seed treatment active ingredients are combined with fungicides and sold under various trade names. Some have grazing waiting periods, so read label carefully.
English grain aphid: lime green, “spindly legs” with black antennae, cornicles and
legs. Antennae more than ½ length of body.
Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid)  
Bird cherry oat aphid: olive green with brownish-red spot on back around base of cornicles. Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin)  
  Post-Plant  
  Besiege [3,28 (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 30-day PHI.
Rice root aphid is similar in appearance to bird cherry oat aphid, but tends to feed on crown, beneath the soil. Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + gamma-cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
Greenbug: See greenbug section Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + lambda-cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw.
Russian wheat aphid: see Russian wheat aphid section. Dimethoate 4EC [1B]  (dimethoate) Wheat only. 14-day waiting period for grazing, 35-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season.
Bird cherry oat aphid can reduce yield, and is an important vector
of Barley Yellow Dwarf virus.
Karate/Warrior II [3]  (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Silencer, Taiga).
Threshold: Treat for bird cherry oat aphids if numbers exceed 30
per stem. Consider using low rate of seed treatment if forage + grain. There is no threshold for English grain aphid, for corn leaf aphid, or rice root aphid.
Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season. (other names, Hatchet, Warhawk).
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 7-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Fyfanon).
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) Control may be variable. 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (check label for aphid species).
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 7-day waiting period for forage, 21-days for harvest.
  Transform WG [4C] (sulfoxaflor) 7-day waiting period for grazing, 14 days for grain harvest.
Army cutworm    
Gray striped caterpillar that curls up in to a tight “C” when disturbed. Evident from January through March. Baythroidr XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest.
Damage: Cuts plants at soil line,
can kill plants if it enters the crown.
Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 30-day PHI.
Threshold: Tow to three caterpillars per foot of row if  conditions are dry, if moisture is  adequate, four to five per foot of row. Cobalt [1B,3] or (chlorpyrifos + gamma-cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw. (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Fastac CS [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 14-day PHI.
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Silencer, Taiga).
  Mustang MAXX [3]  (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting.
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other
names: Declare, Prolex).
  Stallion [1B, 3] (chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
14-day Phi for forage, 28 days for grain or straw.
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 3-day waiting period for grazing, 30- day for harvest.
Armyworm    
  Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1st and 2nd instars only. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest.
  Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 30-day PHI.
  Blackhawk [5] (spinosad) 3-day for forage or hay, 21-day waiting period for unparasitized armyworms are harvest.
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw. (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw.
  Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 1-day PHI.
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 14-day PHI.
  Karate/Warrior II [3]  (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30-days for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Silencer, Taiga).
  Lannate LV [1A] (methomyl) 10-day waiting period for grazing, 7-day waiting period for harvest. (other names, Annihilate).
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Prevathon [28]
(chlorantraniliprole)
Barley, oats, triticale, wheat: 1-day PHI.
  Proaxis 0.5 CSr [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other
names: Declare, Prolex).
  Radiant [5] (spinetoram) 21-day waiting period for grain, 4 days for forage.
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28 days for harvest.
  Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
3-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest.
Brown wheat mite    
Tiny red to dark brown mites that feed on leaves, associated with dry, hot weather. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw. (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
Damage: Plants appear to be drought stricken Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) (Cobalt advanced is chlorpyrifos + lambda cyhalothrin, different rates).
Threshold: Treat if mites and damage are evident Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) Wheat only. 14-day waiting period for grazing, 35-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season.
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season. (other names, Hatchet, Warhawk)
Fall armyworm    
Large, brown, green or black caterpillar with stripes, up to 1.5 inches. Has a light colored, inverted “Y” on head. Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 1st and 2nd instars only. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest.
Damage: Eat small plants in Fall Besiege [3,28] (lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole) 3-day for forage or hay, 21-day waiting period for harvest.
Threshold: Treat if three to four larvae are found per foot of row AND feeding damage is evident. Blackhawk [5] (spinosad) 30 day PHI.
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 1-day PHI.
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 14-day PHI.
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Silencer, Taiga).
  Lannate LV [1A] (methomyl) 10-day waiting period for grazing, 7-day waiting period for harvest.
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Prevathon [28] (chlorantraniliprole) Barley, oats, triticale, wheat: 1-day PHI.
  Proaxis 0.5 CSr [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other names: Declare, Prolex).
  Radiant [5] (spinetoram) 21-day waiting period for grain, 4 days for forage.
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-days for harvest.
False wireworm/Wireworm    
Slender, hard bodied, wormlike larvae Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) Wheat and barley. Do not use surplus treated seed for feed or food. Follow label instructions for application and storage conditions.
Damage: Feed on kernels and newly germinated plants below the soil surface Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) Wheat and barley. 45-day waiting period for grazing. Do not use treated seed as feed. (other names; Attendant, Sativa IM Max, Senator).
Threshold: Treat if two larvae are found per foot2 Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) Do not use treated seed as feed.
    Products are not labeled specifically for false wire worm; performance varies with soil moisture and soil temperature.
Grasshopper    
Damage: May occur in mid-May through early June and August through October. MAy destroy field margins in fall, or chew leaves and clip heads in spring. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
Threshold: 11 to 20 per yd2 in vegetation next to wheat three to seven per yd2 in the field. See EPP-7196 for additional information Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw.
See EPP-7196: Grasshopper Management in Rangeland, PAstures, and Crops Coragen [28] (chlorantraniliprole) 1-day PHI.
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) Wheat only. 14-day waiting period for grazing, 35-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season.
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season. (other
names, Hatchet, Warhawk).
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 7-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Prevathon [28] (chlorantraniliprole) Barley, oats, triticale, wheat 1-day PHI.
  Sevin XLR [1A] (carbaryl) Wheat only; 21-day waiting period for harvest.
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28 days for harvest.
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 3-day waiting period for grazing; 30 days for harvest.
Greenbug Planting Time  
Lime-green aphid with darker green stripe down back. Tips of legs, cornicles and most of antennae are black. Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) Wheat and barley. No grazing restriction. Do not use treated seed as feed.
Damage: Injures plants by injecting toxin, leaves turn yellow, then die. Occasional problem in fall or spring; occurs more commonly in warm, dry conditions. Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) Wheat and barley. 45-day waiting period for grazing. Do not use treated seed as feed. (other names; Attendant, Sativa IM Max, Senator).
Threshold: Treatment thresholds depend on value of crop, and cost of control. To determine treatment threshold, and obtain a Glance 'n Go sampling form, use the Cereal Aphid Expert System: http://entoplp.okstate.edu/gbweb/index3.htm Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) Do not use treated seed as feed.
Or contact your local county OCES office for information on determining thresholds and sampling. Post-Plant  
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28 days for grain or straw.
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw (other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) Wheat only. 14-day waiting period for grazing, 35-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season.
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 30 days for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Silencer, Taiga).
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season. (other names, Hatchet, Warhawk).
  Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 7-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Fyfanon).
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names; Attendant, Sativa IM Max, Senator).
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other names: Declare, Prolex).
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 7-day waiting period for grazing, 21 days for harvest.
  Transform WG [4C] (sulfoxaflor) 7-day waiting period for grazing, 14 days for harvest.
Hessian fly    
Small, fragile mosquito-like fly (adult) larva is whitish, shiny, about 3/16 inches. Flaxseed
(puparium) is 3/16 inches, dark brown, inserted at joint of stem.
Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) Do not use surplus treated seed for feed or food. Follow label instructions for application and storage conditions.
Damage: Stunts plants in fall, causes lodging of heads in spring. Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) Wheat and barley. 45-day waiting period for grazing. Do not use treated seed as feed.
Threshold: No established threshold. Delayed planting will reduce the incidence of Hessian fly infestations, but there is no established "fly free" planting date for most of Oklahoma. Some wheat varieties are resistant to the common Hessian fly biotypes (A, B, C and D) found in Oklahoma. Nipsit [4A] (clothianidin) Do not use treated seed as feed.
See EPP-7086 Hessian Fly Management in Oklahoma Winter Wheat   Seed treatments will not provide control of spring brood Hessian fly. Seed treatment combined with later planting will improve effects of insecticide.
    Consider using a resistant variety for added protection, see PSS-2142, Wheat Variety Comparison for variety ratings of resistance to Hessian fly.
Pale western cutworm    
Caterpillar is gray with no prominent stripes. Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 7-day waiting period for grazing; 30 days for harvest.
Damage: Cuts plants below soil surface. Generally found in the Oklahoma Panhandle, about two to three weeks later than army cutworm. Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28 days for grain or straw.
Threshold: Treat if two or more larvae are found per linear foot of row. Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28 days for grain or straw(other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Fastac [3] (alpha-cypermethrin) 14-day PHI.
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing and 30-day waiting period for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Taiga).
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other names: Declare, Prolex).
Russian wheat aphid Planting Time  
  Cruiser 5FS [4A] (thiamethoxam) Wheat and barley. No grazing restriction. Do not use treated seed as feed.
  Gaucho 480 [4A] Gaucho XT [4A (imidacloprid) Wheat and barley. 45-day waiting period for grazing. Do not use treated seed as feed. (other names; Attendant, Sativa IM Max, Senator).
  Post-Plant  
  Baythroid XL [3] (beta-cyfluthrin) 7-day waiting period for grazing; 30 days for harvest.
  Cobalt [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + gamma- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28 days for grain or straw(other names Bolton, use labeled rates).
  Cobalt Advanced [1B,3] (chlorpyrifos + lambda- cyhalothrin) 14-day waiting period for forage and hay, 28-days for grain or straw.
  Dimethoate 4EC [1B] (dimethoate) Wheat only. 14-day waiting period for grazing, 35-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season.
  Karate/Warrior II [3] (lambda-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, and triticale. 7-day waiting period for grazing and 30-day waiting period for harvest. (other names; Grizzly, Kaiso, Taiga).
  Lorsban 4E [1B]
(chlorpyrifos)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28-day waiting period for harvest. Two applications per season. (other names, Hatchet, Warhawk).
  Mustang MAXX [3] (zeta-cypermethrin) 14-day waiting period for grazing or harvesting. (other names, Respect, Respect EC).
  Proaxis 0.5 CS [3] (gamma-cyhalothrin) Wheat, wheat hay, triticale. 30-day waiting period for harvest and fodder, 7-days for grazing harvest (other names: Declare, Prolex).
  Stallion [1B, 3](chlorpyrofos +
zeta-cypermethrin)
14-day waiting period for grazing, 28 days for harvest.
  Sivanto Prime [4D] (flupyradifurone) 14-day waiting period for grazing, 21 days for harvest.
  Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 3-day waiting period for grazing; 30 days for harvest.
Wheat curl mite No effective chemical control is registered. Delayed planting and management of volunteer wheat may reduce problems.
Tiny sausage-shaped mites that feed on leaves and heads.    
Damage: They do not cause direct damage, but are a vector for Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus
and the virus that causes High Plains disease.
   
Threshold: None    
White grub No effective chemical control is registered. While there is no effective insecticide registered for white grub control, systemic seed treatments such as Gaucho or Cruiser may provide some suppression because they are labeled for control of white grubs in other crops; however, there is no Oklahoma data to support that possibility.
“C” shaped whitish grub with a tan head and swollen tip of abdomen, measuring up to 1½ inches.    
Damage: Feed on roots. Cause
stand loss, poor emergence
and thin stands.
   
Threshold: None    
Winter grain mite    
Tiny dark brown mites with red legs and a red spot on its abdomen. Prefer cool, moist climate, and are more active on cloudy days or evenings. Malathion 5 EC [1B] (malathion) 7-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Damage: Leaves appear stunted and silver colored.   *Other products, such as dimethoate (Dimate and others) and chlorpyrifos (Lorsban, Whirlwind and others) can be applied under 2ee regulations, however since this pest is not specifically labeled, the user assumes all responsibility for the application and results.
Threshold: No established threshold; treat if injury symptoms and mites are present. Day time temperatures that exceed 75 F will reduce populations.    

 

Pre-harvest Intervals and grazing restrictions

 

   
Baythroid XL 3-day PHI for grazing, 30 days for harvest. Two applications/season.
Blackhawk 3-day PHI for grazing, 21 day PHI for harvest.
Cobalt 14-day PHI for grazing, 28 days for harvest. Two applications/season.
Cruiser 5FS No grazing restriction.
Dimethoate 14-day PHI for grazing, 35 days for harvest. Two applications/season.
Fastac 14-day PHI.
Gaucho 480, XT 45-day PHI for harvest or grazing.
Karate/Warrior II 7-day PHI for grazing, 30 days for harvest.
Lannate 14-day PHI for harvest or grazing.
Lorsban 4E 14-day PHI for grazing, 28 days for harvest. Two applications/season.
Mustang MAXX 14-day PHI for grazing or harvest.
Nipsit Do not feed treated grain.
Prevathon 14-day PHI.
Proaxis 0.5EC 30-day PHI for harvest or hay, 7 days for grazing.
Prolex 1.25 CS 30-day PHI for harvest or grazing.
Radiant 4-day PHI for grazing, 21 days for harvest.
Sivanto 7-day PHI for grazing, 21-day PHI for harvest.
Stallion 14-day PHI for grazing, 28-day PHI for harvest.
Transform 7-day PHI for grazing, 14-day PHI for grain or straw harvest.

 

* Group numbers in brackets [#] preceding the insecticide name are used to designate the mode of action of the insecticide according to the classification system developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, (IRAC). It is intended to help in the selection of insecticides for preventative resistance management. If you make multiple applications for a specific pest during a growing season, simply select a registered insecticide with a different number for each application. To further delay resistance from developing, integrate other control methods into your pest management programs.

 

The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of revision. READ and FOLLOW all LABEL directions.

 

The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of printing. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions. The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.

 

 

Tom A. Royer

Extension Entomologist

 

Kristopher L. Giles

Regents Professor

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