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Commercial Management of Turfgrass Insects and Mites

Arthropod pests of turfgrass are varied and sometimes difficult to manage. Damage caused by arthropod pests can be mistaken for disease, drought stress, or other environmental disorders, so proper identification of the causal agent is an essential component of integrated pest management (IPM) of turfgrass pests. Chemical control should not be used as a substitute for good horticultural practices or as “preventative insurance” because it is usually not economically or environ-mentally justifiable. Careless pesticide use also can encourage the development of insecticide resistance. Many turfgrass pest problems can be avoided by following good horticultural practices such as selection of Oklahoma-adapted varieties that are resistant or tolerant to commonly encountered pests. Other cultural control methods include effective thatch management, mowing heights and frequencies that do not stress turfgrass, proper fertilization and irrigation, and weed and disease control. Keep in mind that insecticides with a broad spectrum of activity can harm more than the intended target pest, including pollinators and natural enemies (predators and parasites) of pests. Whenever possible, choose a “reduced risk” insecticide that is not harmful to the environment or non-target organisms when used correctly. Rotate among different pesticide classes to delay or prevent resistance among target pest populations. Chemical recommendations made within this publication are current as of the revised date and are intended for commercial use by golf course superintendents, lawn and landscape professionals, and parks and recreation managers. Always check the insecticide label for the most current application rates and methods, and any use restrictions. Refer to the following OSU publications for additional information.

 

  Pest, Damage and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  ANTS Baits      
  Includes red imported fire ants and harvester ants. Abamectin Award II Fire Ant Bait 6 Baits may be applied as a broadcast or perimeter treatment around individual mounds. Apply when ants are foraging. Follow specific label instructions. See end of publication for control notes on red imported fire ants.
  Social insects that live in colonies. Size and color variable, depending on species. All have characteristic narrow "waist." Fipronil Chipco Choice or Quali-Pro Fipronil 0.0143G 2B  
  Damage: Build mounds, sometimes clear bare areas in turf. Red imported fire ants and harvester ants can inflict a painful sting. Some people are hypersensitive to the sting. Hydramethylnon Amdro Pro Fire Ant Bait 20A  
    Pyriproxyfen Distance Fire Ant Bait 7C  
    S-Methoprene Extinguish Professional Fire Ant Bait 7A  
    S-Methoprene + Hydramethylnon Extinguish Plus 7A + 20A  
    Spinosad Conserve Fire Ant Bait 5  
    Granulars      
  Management: No specific threshold has been established. Ants can be managed with baits or registered turf insecticide applications as mound drenches or perimeter sprays. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B Sprays may be applied as a perimeter spray around the outside of a building label instructions.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  For detailed control options for fire ants, see CR-7309: Treatment Options for Controlling Red Imported Fire Ants. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A Use high rate for fire ant nests. Do not use in pastures or areas of food crop production.
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G 3A  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Spinosad Conserve SC T&O 5  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  ARMYWORMS and CUTWORMS
       
  Larval stage of several moths. Measure up to 1.5 inches. Some live above, and some below ground. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
    Azadirachtin Ornazin 3% EC UN  
    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A Insects must consume material. Most effective against young caterpillars.
  Damage: These caterpillars chew grass blades and often live below ground during the day, especially in bentgrass greens. Damage is most evident with feeding activity of large larvae. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
    Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid Allectus G 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom. Not for use on golf courses or sod farms.
  Management: Treat when damage is noticeable and 2-3 small (1/2 inch or less) caterpillars per square foot are present. Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid + Cypemethrin + Triple Crown T&O or Triple Crown Golf Insecticide 3A + 4A + 3A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn or Acelepryn G 28  
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo PTO n/a To enhance effectiveness, tank mix with a contact insecticide. Do not irrigate following application.
    Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Arena 0.25 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Cyantraniliprole Ference 28  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Dinotefuran Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Indoxacarb Provaunt WDG 22A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Spinosad Conserve SC T&O 5 Spinosad applied early morning or late afternoon can maximize control. Delay watering or mowing 12 to 24 hours post-application.
    Trichlorfon Dylox 420 SL T&O or Dylox 6.2 G 1B  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class  Comments
   BILLBUGS        
  Adults are typical “weevils” with elongate snout measuring 0.25 inches, and having a shiny black body with raised "Y"-shaped area on thorax. Larvae: legless, having a white body with a brown head capsule. Beauveria bassiana Botanigard ES or Botanigard
22 WP
n/a Slow acting; reapply as needed.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A Active against adults.
    Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid Allectus G 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
  Damage: Adults chew holes in leaves and stems to lay eggs. Larvae burrow in stems, crown. Feeding leaves sawdust. Plants may die, and sod will not hold together when rolled up. Sometimes mistaken for winter-kill damage. Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid + Cypemethrin Triple Crown T&O or Triple Crown Golf Insecticide 3A + 4A + 3A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Active against larvae. Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
  Management: No threshold established. Treat if damage is noticeable in lawn in spring and billbug larvae are present. Chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn or Acelepryn G 28  
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Arena 0.25 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Cyantranilirole Ference 28  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Dinotefuran Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Imidacloprid Merit 75 WP or Merit 0.5 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Thiamethoxam Meridian 25 WG or Meridian 0.33 G  4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  CHIGGERS        
  Small (0.5 mm) mite larvae. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Damage: Bites cause reddish welts, accompanied by intense itching that can persist for 7 to 10 days. Bites usually occur in areas where clothing fits tightly to the skin. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
  Management: Regular mowing of grass and removal of weeds and brush can reduce chigger numbers. Fipronil Chipco Choice or Quali-Pro Fipronil 0.0143G 2B  
  Repellents can be used for personal protection. If working in a chigger-infested area, take a soapy bath immediately. Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  CHINCH BUGS        
    Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
  Adults are 1/8 inch long, black with white wings that are folded over the back into an "hour glass" shape. Nymphs are reddish to brown, with a white stripe across their "shoulders." Beauveria bassiana Botanigard ES or Botanigard
22 WP
n/a Slow acting; reapply as needed.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A Higher application rates of UP-Star may be needed when adults and nymphs are present in mid-summer.
    Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
  Damage: More of a problem in St. Augustinegrass in Oklahoma. Aggregations of chinch bugs suck plant juices and clog phloem and xylem. As they feed, they also inject a toxin. Symptoms resemble drought injury; patchy with chlorotic and necrotic leaves. Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid Allectus G 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid + Cypemethrin Triple Crown T&O or Triple Crown Golf Insecticide 3A + 4A + 3A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn or Acelepryn G 28  
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo PTO n/a To enhance effectiveness, tank mix with a contact insecticide. Do not irrigate following application.
    Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Aren 0.25 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Cyantraniliprole Ference 28  
  Irrigation prior to application will help the insecticide penetrate the thatch layer where chinch bugs reside. Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Dinotefuran Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Imidacloprid Merit 75 WP or Merit 0.5G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Trichlorfon Dylox 420 SL T&O or Dylox 6.2 G 1B  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  DIGGER WASPS        
  Includes cicada killer, scoliid, and typhoiid wasps. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
  Typical wasp appearance and colorful. Males often harass people who enter their breeding territory. Females nest underground. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A  
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1A  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 1B  
  Management: No threshold established. Wasps prefer nesting in bare ground versus mulched landscapes. Control with spray or dust of the nest entrances, or broadcast of a granular product where heavy nesting exists. Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  FLEAS        
  Small (0.03 to 0.4 inch) brown, wingless insects that are flattened on both sides. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Damage: Fleas feed on blood using sucking mouthparts. Bites cause small hardened bump that is itchy and/or painful. Bites typically located on lower legs and ankles. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
  Management: Treat areas where pets frequent (indoor and outdoor). Flea hotspots can be easily detected by wearing white athletic socks, or taking a white rage attached to a stick and dragging it over areas that might have infestations. Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Spinosad Conserve SC T&O 5  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  GRASSHOPPERS        
  1-2 inches, outer wings leathery, inner wings clear or colored. Enlarged hind legs designed for jumping. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
    Beauveria bassiana Botanigard ES or Botanigard 22 WP n/a Slow acting; reapply as needed.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Damage: Grasshoppers feed on foliage of numerous plants. Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom. 
  Management: No threshold established. See EPP-7322: Grasshopper Control in Gardens and Landscapes. Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid + Cypemethrin Triple Crown T&O or Triple Crown Golf Insecticide 3A + 4A + 3A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom. 
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Indoxacarb Provaunt WDG 22A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Nosema locustae Nolo Bait or Semaspore n/a Microsporidial pathogen of grasshoppers. Works best on small nymphs.

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  MILLIPEDES        
  Long, with round body and many (80 to 400) legs). Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Damage: Millipedes rarely cause damage, but can invade households when populations build and conditions become dry. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours post-application.
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
  Management: Reduce or eliminate moist areas and harborage (grass clippings, leaves, etc.). Water lawn during early morning to increase the time that turf is dry. Dethatch high-maintenance lawns. Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  MITES        
  BERMUDAGRASS and ZOYSIAGRASS MITES Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A Optimal control of eriophyid mites may be achieved by mixing bifenthrin with the labeled rate of an appropriate surfactant such as a penetrant.
  Small (less than 1/100 inch), white, cigar-shaped, eriophyid mites. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
  Damage: After the growth of grass, cause stunting, and shortening of nodes in bermudagrass ("buggy whipping" in zoysiagrass). Plants may become yellow, weakened.        
  Management: Cultural practices, including fertility and mowing, can reduce problem. Spray timing not currently known for most effective control.        
  CLOVER MITES Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Spider-like, less than 1 mm long. Dark green with orange-red markings, long front legs. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
 

 

Damage: Minor turf pest, but can become nuisance when large numbers build and move to buildings for shelter in early spring and fall.
Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
  Management: Cultural practices that enhance lawn health help limit damage and build up. Spot treat areas where mites accumulate. Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  MOLE CRICKETS        
  Adults cylindrical, 1.3 to 1.4 inches, body covered with dense coat of fine hair, and spade-like front legs that resemble a mole's front legs. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A Appy late in the day followed by irrigation with up to 1/2 inch of water.
    Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
  Damage: Northern mole cricket and prairie mole cricket are Oklahoma residents and are not considered major pests of turf. Can injure turf by feeding on turf and tunneling. Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid Allectus G 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom. Not for use on golf courses or sod farms.
    Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid + Cypemethrin Triple Crown T&O or Triple Crown Golf Insecticide 3A + 4A + 3A Apply late in the day followed by irrigation with up to 1/2 inch of water. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
  Management: Define injured areas, and treat with insecticide. Normally control is not required. Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Aren 0.25 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A Irrigate after application.
    Fipronil Chipco Choice or Quali-Pro Fipronil 0.0143G 2B  
    Imidacloprid Merit 75 WP or Merit 0.5G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Indoxacarb Provaunt 22A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A Use higher rate for populations comprised of mostly adults.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Trichlorfon Dylox 420 SL T&O or Dylox 6.2 G 1B Thoroughly irrigate turf following treatment.

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  SLUGS and SNAILS        
  Soft bodied, with shell (snail) or bare (slug). Leave slime trail where they have been feeding. Boric Acid Niban Granular Bait 8D  
  Damage: Chew leaves, scrape leaf tissue. Iron Phosphate Sluggo UN  
  Management: Treat with bait. Don’t overwater lawn. Mesurol Mesurol 75 W 1A Not for use on residential lawns.
    Metaldehyde Metarex 4% Snail and Slug Bait UN Rotate with mesurol to help avoid development of resistance in slugs and snails.

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  SOD WEBWORMS        
  Larvae vary from gray to light green to brown. Measure 0.6 to 1 inch. Adult moths with wingspans about 0.5 to 0.75 inch, many with a snout-like projection, and fly in a zigzag pattern when distributed. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B  
  Damage: Larvae chew on tender leaves, may cut off grass blades as they get older. Injury can be mistaken for disease or drought injury. Most likely to occur during late summer. Azadirachtin Ornazin 3% EC UN  
  Management: Bermudagrass usually can outgrow damage. Young larvae present about 2 weeks after peak moth flights. Monitor by using a soap flush (2 T. lemon-scented dish soap per gal water). Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A Insects must consume material. Most effective against young caterpillars.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
    Chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn or Acelepryn G 28  
    Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Chromobacterium substsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo PTO n/a To enhance effectiveness, tank mix with a contact insecticide. Do not irrigate following application.
    Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Arena 0.25 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Cyantraniliprole Ference 28  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Dinotefuran Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Indoxacarb Provaunt WDG 22A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or  Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  
    Methomyl Lannate SP 1A For use on sod farms only.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  
    Spinosad Conserve SC T&O 5 Spinosad applied early morning or late afternoon can maximize control. Delay watering or mowing 12 to 24 hours following application.
    Trichlorfon Dylox 420 SL T&O or Dylox 6.2 G 1B  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  SOWBUGS and PILLBUGS        
  Small, gray, and “armored” arthropods. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
  Damage: Sowbugs rarely cause damage but can  invade households when populations build and conditions become dry. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
  Management: Reduce or eliminate moist areas and harborage (grass clippings, leaves, wood debris). Water lawn during early morning to increase the time that turf is dry during a 24-hour period. Dethatch high-maintenance lawns. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Cyhalothrin Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC    
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  TICKS        
  Small, 8-legged arthropods, appearing flattened when unfed. Body color ranges from red to brown to nearly black. Four life stages: egg, larva (six legs), nymph, and adult. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star Gold or Onyx Pro 3A  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours following application.
  Damage: Feeding results in inflammation, swelling, and potential secondary infection. Ticks can transmit disease, including Lyme’s Disease, Rocky Mountain spotted  fever, tularemia, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis to humans. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B  
    Cyfluthrin Tempo Ultra GC or Tempo SC Ultra 3A  
  Management: Manage ticks on household pets and pet resting areas. Use physical inspection of anyone who is active in tick-infested areas during “tick season.” Use repellents such as DEET, and treat premises as needed. Deltamethrin Deltagard G 3A  
    Lambda Cyhalothrin Demand CS or Demand G or Scimitar CS or Scimitar GC 3A  

 

  Pest, Damage, and Management Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name and Formulation Pesticide Class Comments
  WHITE GRUBS        
   Large, "C" -shaped grub with a white body and a brown head. Larval stage of several beetle species. Bifenthrin + Clothianidin Aloft GC SC or Aloft LC SC 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Bifenthrin + Imidacloprid Allectus G 3A + 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom. Not for use on golf courses or sod farms.
   Damage: White grubs feed on grass roots at or just below the thatch layer. Grass takes on droughty appearance. Damage more pronounced in fall. Predator activity from armadillos, skunks, moles and birds indicates infestations and causes secondary damage. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A Curative treatment of problem areas in turf. Do not irrigate or mow treated areas within 24 hours post-application.
    Chlorantraniliprole Acelepryn or Acelepryn G 28  
    Clothianidin Arena 50 WDG or Arena 0.25 G 4A Can be used as a curative treatment in late summer or early fall. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
  Management: Treatment threshold for masked chafer: 15 to 20 per square foot. Chromobacterium substsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo PTO n/a To enhance effectiveness, tank mix with a contact insecticide. Do not irrigate following application.
    Cyantraniliprole Ference 28  
  Treatment threshold for May/June beetle: four to five per square foot. Dinotefuran Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Imidacloprid Merit 75 WP or Merit 0.5 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Thiamethoxam Meridian 25 WG or Meridian 0.33 G 4A BEE CAUTION: Do not apply when flowering weeds are in bloom.
    Trichlorfon Dylox 420 SL T&O or Dylox 6.2 G 1B Curative treatment of problem areas in turf. Thoroughly irrigate lawn following treatment. Can be applied as a rescue treatment in late summer or early fall.

Restricted Use Pesticide

 

Control Notes for Imported Fire Ants

 

Individual mound treatment

Generally, non-chemical methods are not effective against fire ants. Digging or tilling up mounds simply moves them around. Boiling water (3 gallons per mound) may be effective for treating individual mounds, but it must be done carefully to avoid killing plants and not suffering from serious burns.

 

Best control has been achieved with chemical treatment of nests and surrounding areas. The best time to individually treat mounds with contact insecticides is on a sunny morning after a cool night, when ants are near the surface of the mound. Such treatments can be accomplished with drenches, surface sprays, granules, or baits.

 

Most mound drenches involve mixing the insecticide in 1-2 gallons of water. The treatment should be applied to the mound with a watering can that sprinkles the treatment on the mound much like a gentle rain. If the drench begins to cause the dirt on the mound to run off, stop and allow the liquid to soak into the mound, then resume drenching until all of the liquid is used.

 

Dust formulations like Pinpoint can be sprinkled on and around the mound, according to label instructions. If the label states that the treatment should be watered in, then do so with a watering can. Other products may state that the products should not be watered in.

 

Baits

Most ant baits contain a slow-acting insecticide, such as an insect growth regulator (IGR) that can be taken back to the mound and fed to other members of the colony, including the queen. They can be applied as a broadcast, or used as individual mound treatments. If they are used to treat individual mounds, the bait should be placed about 1-3 feet around, but not directly on, the mound.

 

Baits work best if applied when workers are actively for-aging. This can be determined by leaving some greasy food, such as some chunks of tuna fish, or hot dog pieces, potato chips, or peanut butter near a mound and checking if for ant activity after 15-20 minutes. During the summer, worker ants forage at night and are actually inactive during the day. The best time to apply baits is in late afternoon or early evening. Moisture and rain will dissolve bait particles, so use baits only when grass and soil are dry, and no rain is expected within several hours after treatment.

 

A proven approach for managing red imported fire ants is to make a broadcast bait application in late spring when soil temperatures are above 70 degrees F and ants are actively foraging. This bait application should be followed up by treating individual problem mounds about 1-2 weeks later. For best results, always avoid disturbing the mound before or during treatment since it will cause the ants to move away and avoid the chemical.

 

For downloadable documents on red imported fire ant control options and more information on red imported fire ants in Oklahoma, check the Oklahoma State University Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology’s Fire Ant Website.  For additional information on managing fire ants, check the national eXtension Fire Ant Website.

 

* The numbers associated with the pesticide class column were developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, (IRAC) in 2005. It is intended to help in the selection of insecticides for preventative resistance management. If you make multiple applications for a specific pest or group of pests during a growing sequence, simply select a registered insecticide with a different number for each generation (14-21 days). You can rotate within the same number if more than one subgroup is available (Example: 2A and 2B). To further delay resistance from developing, integrate other control methods into your pest management programs.

  1A= Carbamates 14= Nereistoxin analogues
  1B= Organophosphates 15= Benzoylureas
  2A= Cyclodiene organochlorines 16= Buprofezin
  2B= Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) 17= Cyromazine
  3A= Pyrethroids, Pyrethrins 18= Diacylhydrazines
  3B= DDT, Methoxychlor 19= Amitraz
  4A= Neonicitinoids 20A= Hydramethylnon
  4B= Nicotine 20B= Acequinocyl
  4C= Sulfoximines 20C= Fluacrypyrim
  4D= Butenolides 21A= METI acaricides and insecticides
  5= Spinosyns 21B= Rotenone
  6= Avermectins, Milbemycins 22A = Indoxacarb
  7A= Juvenile hormone analogues 22B= Metaflumizone
  7B= Fenoxycarb 23= Tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives
  7C= Pyriproxyfen 24A= Phosphine
  8A= Alkyl halides 24B= Cyanides
  8B= Chloropicrin 25A= Beta-ketonitrile derivatives
  8C= Fluorides 25B= Carboxanilides
  8D= Borates 26= (unassigned)
  8E= Tartar emetic 27= (unassigned)
  8F= Methyl isothiocyanate generators 28= Diamides
  9B= Pyridine azomethine derivatives 29= Flonicamid
  9D= Pyropenes UN= Unknown mode of action
  10A= Clofentezine, Diflovidazin, Hexythiazox  
  10B= Etoxazole  
  11A= Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce  
  11B= Bacillus sphaericus  
  12A= Diafenthiuron  
  12B= Organotin miticide  
  12C= Propargite  
  12D= Tetradifon  
  13= Chlorfenapyr, DNOC, Sulfluramid  

 

NOTES:

  1. Check registration for specific site uses. Some products are labeled for sod farms and golf courses, while others are not.
  2. Before purchasing and using any pesticide, read the label carefully for registered use(s), rates, and application frequency. Also note toxicity category on the label of each pesticide since toxicity ratings may affect reentry intervals and note any ventilation requirements. Wear protective clothing as recommended on each pesticide label.
  3. Insecticides with a broad spectrum of activity in the chemical classes pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and neonicotinoids may be harmful to natural enemies (parasitoids and predators). Some broad-spectrum insecticides are more selective than others, and selectivity further depends on how, when, and where the insecticide is applied. Be sure to check the label for the kinds of insects controlled by the product, or contact your county extension educator for information on the use of insecticides with natural enemies.

 

Eric J. Rebek
Extension Entomologist

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