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Commercial Grape Insect and Disease Control

Table 1.

Timing Pest/Problems Material MOA Group* Rate/Acre Comments
DORMANT        
Phomopsis Powdery mildew       The dormant application is aimed at reducing over-wintering inoculum on canes if there has been a history of phomopsis, powdery mildew or mealybugs in the vineyard.
Mealybugs Brandt Lime Sulfur OMRI  M02 4 - 10 gal. Powdery mildew and mealybugs.
                            15 - 20 gal. Phomopsis
  Miller Lime Sulfur   M02 4 - 10 gal. Powdery mildew and mealybugs.
      15 - 20 gal. Phomopsis.
         
Trunk disease, Eutypa Canker Diseases Topsin M 70WSB 1 3.2 oz. in 1 gal. Apply as a paint to wounded surfaces after pruning and before the next rain.
      water. OR  
      1.5 lbs. in 50 gpa. Apply as directed spray to wounded surfaces after pruning and before the next rain. Applicators must have a copy of the FIFRA 24 (c) Special Local Need Label when applying Topsin M.
  Mettle 125ME 3 5 oz. Apply as spray within 24 hours after pruning.

 Table 2.

Timing Pest/Problems Material MOA Group* Rate/Acre Comments
DELAYED DORMANT TO BUD SWELL       Apply as buds are beginning to swell but just before buds show green.
         
Anthracnose Sulforix M02 1 - 2 gal. Aimed at reducing over wintering inoculum on canes if there has been a history of anthracnose in vineyard.
         
        Scout for insects at least twice weekly as bud swell occurs. Only spray for insects if present.
         
European red mite, mealybug, scale insects Superior oil (70-sec)**OMRI   1 - 4 gal.  Use lower rates for mites and scale, and higher rates for mealybugs. Do not apply after buds show green.
         
Flea beetle and climbing cutworms Baythroid XLr 3A 2.4 - 3.2 fl. oz. Do not exceed 12.8 oz per acre per year. Can be used for mealybugs.
       Danitol 2.4EC 3A 5.3 - 21.3 fl. oz. Use lower rate for flea beetles, and higher rate for cutworms. Can also be used for mites. See label for specific application instructions for climbing cutworms.
         
  Sevin XLR Plus  1A 1 - 2 qt. Use lower rate for flea beetles, and higher rate for cutworms. See bee precautions below.
         
Flea beetle Imidan 70W 1B 1.3 - 2.1 lb. Do not exceed 6.5 lbs./acre per year.
  Scorpion 35SL 4A 2 - 5 fl. oz. See bee precautions below.
         
Climbing cutworms Altacor 28 3 - 4.5 oz. Do not exceed four applications per year.
  Brigade 2ECr 3A 3.2 - 6.4 fl. oz. Do not exceed 6.4 oz./acre/season.
  Delegate WG 5 3 - 5 oz. Do not exceed 19.5 oz./acre/year.
  DiPel DFOMRI 11A 0.5 - 2 lb.  
  Entrust SCOMRI 5 4 - 8 fl. oz. Do not exceed 23 oz. or more than five applications per year. Works best against young larvae.
  Lorsban 4Er or      Do not use if using later for root borer application.
  Lorsban Advanced 1B 1 qt. Do not exceed one application of Lorsban/year.
  Mustang Maxxr 3A 2 – 4 fl. oz. Do not apply more than 24 fl. oz./acre/season.

 Table 3.

Timing Pest/Problems Material MOA Group* Rate/Acre Comments
BUD BREAK TO PRE-BLOOM        Leaves and shoots are produced.
         
Black rot, Phomopsis cane, and leaf spot Downy mildew       Early sprays for these diseases are advised if they have been a problem in previous years. Preventative chemicals need to be applied starting at 3-inch shoot growth. Repeat applications using 7- to 10-day intervals (or according to label instructions). Rotate fungicide modes of action (MOA) to prevent fungicide resistance in the pathogen populations. 
  Abound Flowable 11 10.0 - 15.5 fl. oz. See comments on strobilorins at end.
  Captan 50WP M04 2.0 - 4.0 lb.  
  Captan 80WDG M04 1.2 - 2.5 lb. Do not apply more than 12 lb of the active ingredient of Captan 50WP) or 17.5 lb of Captan 80WDG/season. Captan is not as effective on black rot as Mancozeb. Check label for interactions with oils and sulfur if using. Captan is best suited for summer applications once Dithane cannot be used due to its 66 day PHI. Captan is best used for downy mildew prevention and summer bunch rots.
  Dithane  DF, M-45  M03 1.4 - 4 lbs.  
  Dithane F-45  M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt. Mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate) would be the fungicide of choice for these early stages because it is a general protectant and has a long PHI. Do not apply these compounds within 66 days of harvest.
  Flint  11 1.5 - 4.0 oz. Do not apply Flint to Concord or other American type grapes as injury may occur. Flint is not recommended for downy mildew control. See comments on strobilorins at end. Rates depend on disease controlled.
  Luna Experience  7+3 8.0 - 8.6 oz. Black rot, use high rate for phomopsis cane and leaf spot. Not effective against downy mildew.
  Manzate Flowable M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt. See comment above for Dithane.
  Manzate Max M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt.  See comment above for Dithane.
  Mettle 125ME 3 3 - 5 fl. oz. Black rot, powdery mildew, and anthracnose.
  Pristine 11+7 8 - 12.5 oz. Do not apply Pristine to Concord or other American type grapes as injury may occur. See comments on strobilorins at end.
  Rally 40WSP 3 3 - 5 oz. Black rot, powdery mildew and anthracnose. 
  Sovran 50WG  11 3.2 - 6.4 oz. See comments on strobilorins at end.
  Ziram 76DF M03 3 - 4 lb.  
         
Powdery mildew       On varieties that are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, a fungicide for powdery mildew control might be needed in these early sprays. Primary infections of powdery mildew can occur during this period.
  Abound Flowable 11 10.0 - 15.5 fl.oz. See comments on strobilorins at end. 
  Endura  7 4.5 – 8.0 oz.  
  Flint 11 1.5 - 2.0 oz. Do not apply Flint to Concord or other American type grapes as injury may occur. See comments at end.
  KaligreenOMRI NC 2.5 lb. Thorough coverage is required. No residual activity.
  Kenja 400SC 7 20 - 22 fl. oz. Powdery mildew, botrytis and anthracnose. 
  Luna Experience 7+3 6.0 - 8.6 fl. oz. See rates above for black rot and phomopsis control.
  Mettle 125ME 3 3 - 5 oz. Black rot, powdery mildew and anthracnose.
  Pristine 11+7 8 - 12.5 oz. Do not apply Pristine to Concord or other American type grapes as injury may occur. See comments at end.
  Procure 480SC 3 4 - 8 fl. oz. Do not apply more than 32 fl. oz./acre/crop year.
  Quintec 13 4 - 6.6 fl. oz. Rate varies depending on treatment interval.
  Rally 40WSP 3 3 - 5 oz. Do not apply more than 24 oz./acre/year
  SuffOil-X**OMRI NC 1 - 2 % conc. 1 to 2 gal/100 gal water.
  SulfurOMRI M02 See label See comments on sulfur at end. 
  Sovran  11 3.2 - 4.8 oz. See comments on strobilorins at end.
  Torino U6 3.4 oz. Do not make more than two applications per year.
  Vivando 50 10.3 - 15.4 oz. Do not make more than three applications per year.

Table 4.

Timing Pest/Problems Material MOA Group* Rate/Acre Comments
FOUR- TO TEN-INCH SHOOTS       When new shoots are about 10 inches long certain pests may be present. Scout early to detect insects as quickly as possible.
         
Flea beetle (larvae) Baythroid XLr 3A 2.4 - 3.2 fl. oz. Do not exceed 12.8 oz. per acre per year. Can be used for mealybugs.
       Danitol 2.4ECr 3A 5.3 - 21.3 fl. oz. Lower rate for flea beetles. Can also be used for mites.
  Imidan 70W 1B 1.3 - 2.1 lb. Do not exceed 6.5 lbs./acre per year.
  Scorpion 35SL 4A 2 - 5 fl. oz. Foliar application. See bee precautions below.
  Sevin XLR Plus 1A 1 - 2 qt. Use lower rate for flea beetles. See bee precautions below.
         
Rose chafer       Rose chafer may be present any time between 4- and 10-inch growth and bloom.
  Assail 30SG 4A 2.5 – 5.3 oz. Do not make more than two applications/year
  Danitol 2.4ECr 3A 10.7 - 21.3 fl. oz. Do not exceed 42.7 oz. per acre per year.
  Imidan 70W 1B 1.3 - 2.1 lbs. Do not exceed 6.5 lbs. per acre per year.
  Sevin 4F  1A 1 - 2 qt. See bee precautions below.
  Sevin XLR Plus 1A 1 - 2 qt. See bee precautions below.
         
Redbanded leafroller       Use of pheromone traps for redbanded leafroller will indicate their presence and help determine need for control.
  Danitol 2.4ECr 3A 10.7 - 21.3 fl. oz. Do not exceed 42.7 oz. per acre per year.
  Delegate WG 5 3 - 5 oz. Do not exceed 19.5 oz./acre/year.
  Entrust SCOMRI 5 4 - 8 fl. oz. Do not exceed 23 oz. or more than five applications per year.
  Imidan 70W 1B 1.3 - 2.1 lb. Do not exceed 6.5 lbs./acre per year.
  Intrepid 2F 18 8 – 16 fl. oz. PHI depends on rate.  See label.
  Sevin 4F 1A 1 - 2 qt. See bee precautions below.
  Sevin XLR Plus 1A 1 - 2 qt. See bee precautions below.
         
European red mite (if present) Acramite 50WS 20D 0.75 – 1 lb. Do not exceed one application per year.
  Envidor 2 SC 23 16 - 34 fl. oz. Do not exceed one application per year.
  Nealta 25A 13.7 fl. oz. Do not exceed two applications per year.
  Nexter  21A 4.4 - 10.67 oz. Do not exceed two applications per year.
  Onager 10A 12 - 24 oz. Do not exceed one application per year.
  Portal XLO  21A 2 pts. Do not exceed 2 pts/acre per year. (Also controls mealybugs and leafhoppers.)
  Vendex 50WPr 12B 1 - 2.5 lb. Do not exceed two applications or 4 lbs./acre per season.
  Zeal 10B 2.0 – 3.0 oz. Do not exceed one application per season.

 Table 5.

Timing Pest/Problems Material MOA Group* Rate/Acre Comments
PRE-BLOOM THROUGH BLOOM       Just before bloom through the bloom period. Since bees do not pollinate grapes there is no danger to bees at this time unless they are working other blooming plants in the area being sprayed. See bee precautions below.
         
Black rot, Phomopsis cane and Leaf spot, powdery mildew       Important sprays. Same as Grape Bud Break to Pre-bloom. Pay attention to pre-harvest intervals.
Downy mildew        
Rose chafer, Flea beetle larvae, Redbanded leafroller Same as for 4- to 10-inch shoot spray (if needed)     Insects are often a problem in vineyards at this stage. The use of pheromone traps for grape berry moth and redbanded leafroller will indicate their presence and help determine the need for control. 
Grape berry moth See shatter spray if needed.      
         
Grape scale Lorsban Advancedr   1 qt Apply as a spray drench ground application using a minimum spray volume of 25 gpa. Do not exceed one application per year. Grape root borer control will affect use of Lorsban for other pests.
         
Grape phylloxera (leaf form)       Control the root gall form of grape phylloxera by using rootstocks derived from American grapes. Native American grapes (Eastern U.S.) are nearly immune to this pest.
         
  Assail 30SG  4A 2.5 - 5.3 oz. Apply at pre-bloom and repeat 10-14 days later. Do not exceed 12.5 oz. per acre per year.
  Danitol 2.4ECr  3A 10.7 - 21.33 fl. oz. Apply at pre-bloom and repeat 10 to 14 days later.
  Movento 23 6.0 – 8.0 fl. oz. See label regarding adjuvants. Allow 30 days between applications. Do not exceed 12.5 oz./acre per year.
  Platinum 4A 8.0 - 17.0 fl. oz. Soil-applied. Do not exceed 17 oz./acre per year. 60 day PHI.
  Platinum SG 4A 2.67 – 5.67 oz. Soil applied. Do not exceed 5.67 oz./acre/year. 60 day PHI. 
  Scorpion 35SL 4A 2.0 - 5.0 fl. oz. Foliar application. (1 day PHI)
      9.0 - 10.5 fl. oz. Soil application (28 day PHI) Do not exceed 20.25 fl. oz./acre per year. See bee precautions below.

Table 6.

Timing Pest/Problem  Material MOA Group*  Rate/Acre Comments
BLOOM       When caps begin to fall.
         
Black rot Phomopsis cane and leaf spot Same as bud break to pre-bloom (Check PHI)     If wet weather persists during bloom, a fungicide application at mid-bloom (7 to 10 days after capsbegin to fall) will be necessary. See Comments at end.
Powdery mildew        
         
Botrytis bunch rot       While botrytis bunch rot (BBR) may not be a problem every year in Oklahoma vineyards, this spray is critical in those vineyards that have a history of BBR. It will typically be more severe on tight clustered varieties such as Vinifera and French hybrid grapes.
  Elevate 50WDG  17 1.0 lb. Apply no more than 3lb./acre/season. 0-day PHI.
  Kenja 400SC  7 20 - 22 fl. oz. Powdery mildew, botrytis, and anthracnose. 
  Luna Experience 7+3 8.0 - 8.6 fl. oz. Do not apply more than 34 fl. oz./acre/year. 
  Rovral 4F 2 1.0 - 2.0 lb. Rate and number of applications depend on type of grape.
  Scala SC  9 18 oz. Rate is 18 fl. oz. by itself, 9 fl. oz. if tank mixed.
  Switch 62.5WG  9+12 11 - 14 oz. Also registered for control of sour rot.
  Topsin M WSB 1 1 - 1.5 lb. Apply at first bloom (no later than 5% bloom).
  Vangard WG 9 10 oz. Use 5 to 10 oz. for tank mix.
         
Downy mildew        
  Abound 11 10.0 - 15.5 fl. oz. See comments at end regarding use of strobilurins.
  Captan 50WP M04 2.0 - 4.0 lb.  
  Captan 80WDG  M04 1.2 - 2.5 lb. Do not apply more than 12 lb. ai. Of Captan 50WP or 17.5 lb. ai. of Captan 80WDG/season. Check label for timing and interactions with oils and sulfur if using.
  Forum  40 6 fl. oz. Do not exceed 30 fl. oz./acre or five applications/season. 
  Pristine 11+ 7 8.0 - 12.5 oz. Do not apply Pristine to Concord, Noiret or other American grape types as injury may occur.
  ProPhyt 33 2 - 4 pts. Test for varietal sensitivity before using.
  Phostrol 33 2.0 - 5.0 pts. Test for varietal sensitivity before using.
  Ranman 400SC 21 2.1 - 2.75 fl. oz. Do not use any surfactant for grapes.
  Reason 500SC  11 2.7 fl. oz.  
  Revus Top 3+40 7.0 fl. oz. Do not apply to Concord or Thomcord. 
  Ridomil Gold Copper  4+M01 2 lb. 42 day PHI
  Ridomil Gold MZ 4+M03 2.5 lb. 66 day PHI
  Sovran 11 4.0 - 6.4 oz. See comments on strobilorins at end.
  Zampro 45+40 11 - 14 fl. oz. Do not exceed 2 applications per season.
  Ziram M03 3 - 4 lb.  

 Table 7.

Timing Pest/Problem  Material MOA Group*  Rate/Acre Comments
SHATTER       When unfertilized berries fall from clusters; about 7 to 10 days after bloom or 7 to 10 days after last spray.
Black rot Powdery mildew  Same as bud break to pre-bloom.     Check PHI. See comments at end.
         
Downy mildew Same as bloom.     Check PHI.
         
Grape berry moth, Leafhopper, Rose chafer, Grape mealybug, Grape rootworm, Redbanded leafroller, Japanese beetle       It is important to monitor for all insect pests after petal-fall. Pheromone traps offer help in determining the presence of redbanded leafroller and grape berrymoth. Grape berry moth emergence begins late May and June. There may be three generations per year. Examining the underside of grape leaves will indicate if leafhoppers are present. Check insecticide labels for more information on specific insects.
         
  Altacor 28 2 - 4.5 oz. Grape berry moth, Japanese beetle (3 to 4.5 oz. rate).
  Baythroid XL 3A 2.4 - 3.2 fl. oz. Grape berry moth, leafhopper, mealybug, leafroller.
  Brigade 2ECr 3A 3.2 - 6.4 fl. oz. Leafhopper, grape berry moth, Japanese beetle and two-spotted spider mite (higher rate for spider mite).
  Danitol 2.4EC 3A 5.3 - 10.7 fl. oz. (10.7 - 21.3 fl. oz.) Leafhoppers, grape berry moth, Japanese beetles, rose chafer, redbanded leafroller and mites. Higher rates to 21.3 fl. oz. may be used to control the latter four pests.
  DeliverOMRI 11A 0.5 - 2.0 lb. B.t. product for caterpillar pests only.
  Ecozin PlusOMRI UN 4 - 30 oz. See label.
  Entrust SCOMRI 5 4 - 8 fl. oz. Grape berry moth, redbanded leafroller. Works best against young larvae.
  GrandevoOMRI    1 - 3 lb Grape berry moth, grape leafroller, 2 to 3 lb. rate for leafhoppers, mealybugs and mites.
  Imidan 70W 1B 1.33 - 2.13 lb. Grape berry moth, leafhopper, rose chafer, mealybug, and redbanded leafroller. Do not apply more than 6.5 lbs./acre /year. REI is 14 days. PHI is 7.
  Intrepid 2F  18 8 - 16 fl. oz. Caterpillar pests only – grape berry moth, leafrollers. 
  Intrepid Edge 18+5 6 - 12 fl. oz. For both 2F & Edge, PHI varies (21-30) depending on rate.
  Mustang-Maxxr 3A 4 fl. oz. Grape berry moth, leafhopper and Japanese beetle.
  Nexter  21A 4.4 - 10.67 oz.  
  Nexter SC  21A 7.5 - 17 oz. Nexter and Nexter SC are labeled for use against leafhoppers and mites.
  Pasada  4A 3 - 4 fl. oz. Leafhoppers, mealybugs. Max. app. 8 fl. oz./acre/season.
  Provado 1.6 4A 3 - 4 fl. oz. Leafhoppers, mealybugs. Max. app. 8 fl. oz./acre/season. See bee precautions below.
  Pyganic 5% ECOMRI 3A 4.5 - 17 fl. oz. Leafhoppers, Japanese beetle, mealybugs
  Sevin 4F 1A 1 - 2 qt.  
  Sevin XLR 1A 1 - 2 qt. Sevin formulations – Leafhopper, rose chafer, Japanese beetle. Higher rate for grape berry moth, redbanded leafroller. Greater REI for grape girdling and cane turning. See bee precautions below.
  SpinTor 2 SC 5 4 - 8 fl. oz. For caterpillar pests only. 
         
Mites Abacusr 6 8.0 - 16.0 fl. oz. Plus a nonionic surfactant.
  Acramite 50WS  20D 0.75 - 1.0 lb. Plus a nonionic surfactant. Only one spray per season.
  Agri-Mek SCr 6 1.75 - 3.5 fl. oz. Must use a nonionic surfactant.
  Epi-Mek 0.15EC 6 8 - 16 fl. oz. Plus a nonionic surfactant. No more than two apps./year.
  Envidor 2SC 23 16 - 34 fl. oz. Do not exceed one application/year.
  GrandevoOMRI   2 - 3 lb. Do not use in tank mix.
  Kanemite 15SC  20B 21 - 31 fl. oz. Do not exceed two applications/year.
  Nealta  25A 13.7 fl. oz. Do not exceed two applications/season.
  Nexter 21A 4.4 - 10.67 oz. Do not exceed two applications/year.
  Onager 10A 12 - 24 oz. Do not exceed one application/year.
  Portal XLO  21A 2 pt. Do not exceed 2 pt./acre/year. 
  Vendexr 50WP  12B 1 - 2.5 lb. Do not exceed two applications/season.
  Zeal 10B 2.0 - 3.0 oz. One application per season.

  Table 8.

Timing Pest/Problem  Material MOA Group*  Rate/Acre Comments
GRAPE SHATTER TO VERAISON       First cover should follow shatter by 10 to 14 days. Refer to label for application timing and harvest restrictions. Veraison=berry coloring.
Black rot Powdery mildew Downy mildew Same as bud break to pre-bloom.     Sprays for black rot control may be stopped after berries turn color (reach 6 to 8% sugar). See other comments at end.
         
Grape berry moth, Rose chafer Same as grape shatter sprays.     Rose chafer infestations usually subside by veraison.
Leafhopper        
Redbanded leafroller        
Grape rootworm        
Grape mealybug        
Japanese beetle        
         
Mites Same as grape shatter sprays.      

Table 9.

Timing Pest/Problem  Material MOA Group*  Rate/Acre Comments
VERAISON TO HARVEST       Refer to label directions for timing of applications and harvest restrictions (PHI).
         
Black rot       As berries reach full size and sugar content starts to increase, they become resistant to infection by the black rot fungus. In general, berries are no longer susceptible to black rot after veraison (6 to 8% sugar content).
Powdery mildew, Downy mildew Same as bud break to pre-bloom.      
         
Botrytis bunch rot Same as bloom.     This spray is critical in vineyards or on varieties where Botrytis bunch rot has been a problem. See comments on Botrytis bunch rot at end of this section.
         
Ripe rot Pristine 11+7 8.0 - 12.5 oz. Do not apply Pristine to Concord, Noiret, or other American grape types as injury may occur.
  Viathon P07+3 4 pts. Check label.
         
Sour rot complex OxiDate 2.0OMRI    1:400 dilution Mix OxiDate in a 1:400 dilution and apply at 30 to 100 gal./acre.
         
Grape berry moth, Grape leafhopper, Japanese beetle Same as grape shatter. See recommendations at end of section.     Continue to monitor for insect and mite pests, and apply insecticide as needed. Refer to product label for specific insects, rates, and harvest restrictions.
         
Green June beetle Sevin 4F 1A 2 qt.  
  Sevin XLR 1A 2 qt. Do not concentrate spray on the bunch or visible residues may result. See bee precautions below.
         
Stink bugs Danitol 2.4EC 3A 10.7 - 21.3 fl. oz. 21-day PHI.
         
Mites Same as grape shatter.    

 

 

 Table 10.

Timing Pest/Problem  Material MOA Group*  Rate/Acre Comments
POST HARVEST       To eliminate premature defoliation and decrease inoculum for next season.
Downy mildew ProPhyt 33 2 – 4 pts. Phosphorus acid.  Other formulations exist such as Phostrol and Viathon. See labels.
Powdery mildew OxiDate 2.0OMRI   1:200 – 1:400 Dilution
         
Preventative Mancozeb     Dithane, Manzate
    Dithane  DF, M-45 M03 1.4 - 4 lbs.  
    Dithane F-45 M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt.  
    Manzate Flowable M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt.  
    Manzate Max M03 1.2 - 3.2 qt.   After harvest, Mancozeb products can again be applied. Do not apply more than 19.2 lb. ai. Per season.

Residue Reminder: Visible films of spray residue are unattractive on fresh fruit and difficult to remove

 

r Restricted use Pesticide.

* Chemical Group Classifications can be found at the following Web sites:
Herbicides- http://www.plantprotection.org/hrac/, Insecticides- http://www.irac-online.org/, Fungicides- http://www.frac.info/.
** Horticultural oils are physical toxicants which act as suffocant and entrapment insecticides.

 

OMRI Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) listed for organic production.
READ ALL LABELS for important restrictions or warnings about tank mix compatibility or phytotoxicity warnings BEFORE APPLYING PESTICIDES. THE LABEL IS THE LAW.

 

Bee Precautions

Several insecticides listed are toxic to bees. Mow the vineyard floor before application if weeds or cover crops are blooming. Read individual labels for specific bee protection measures for each product.

 

Grape Root Borer

This pest is not common in Oklahoma. It is generally difficult to evaluate damage from grape root borer.  Injury is most often associated with a slow decline of vineyards, when it can be associated at all.  If grape root borer is not a problem, there is no reason to risk destroying natural enemies (i.e., predators, para-sites, pathogens). Therefore, treat with an insecticide only if necessary. Sampling is critical for several reasons: 1) The control program is relatively expensive; and 2) Use of an insecticide can create as well as solve problems. If you believe that this insect is affecting your vineyard’s performance, you may wish to begin the following program:

 

Immediately After Harvest

Sample - 10 vines per acre (but not less than 50 vines).
Examine - A circular site (3 feet in diameter) around the base of each plant, concentrating on the inner 1 foot, looking for shed pupal skins of the grape root borer moth.  If pupal skins are found beneath 5% of the vines examined, apply an insecticide next year.

 

35 Days Before Harvest

If previous year’s sample indicates a need to spray, apply Lorsban 4E, following label instructions.  Older vines are more likely to be infested.  Apply an insecticide as late as the label permits, but before harvest.

 

Green June Beetle, Japanese Beetle and Rose Chafer

As the crop reaches maturity, these beetle pests may become more of a problem, particularly feeding on ripened fruit.  When soil conditions are moist before or slightly after veraison, and organic matter in the surrounding area is high then these beetles can be quite common and difficult to control.  Careful attention to beetle infestation one month prior to harvest should be given to keep populations in check. Start treatment when first noticed. Use of Danitol up to 21 days before harvest can decrease populations.  Rotation to Sevin insecticide up to seven days before harvest will further aid in control.

 

Grasshoppers

Grasshopper control can and should be concentrated very early in the season before populations migrate into vineyard borders. Young, flightless nymphs may cause severe defoliation of border plants and progress into vineyards if left unchecked. If treatment is directed outside the vineyard, in pasture areas, then applications of Dimilin early in the season can prevent buildup of populations. When controlling grasshoppers inside the vineyard, then careful use of labeled compounds is the only recourse. Some level of effective control has been obtained using NOLO® Bait, a biological control agent containing tiny protozoan spores. This product is slow acting and does not store well, so use it early and often enough to be effective and to deplete your supply.

 

Botrytis Bunch Rot

Botrytis bunch rot is most commonly a problem on tight­-clustered French hybrid and Vitis vinifera cultivars. Fungicide application should be timed to occur right before the berries enlarge to tighten clusters. Proper timing and thorough spray coverage are essential for good control. Direct the spray toward the fruit, and use a minimum of 100 gal/A of water.  Include a spreader-sticker with Rovral, especially at the 1.5 lb. rate. 

NOTE: Removal of leaves around clusters on mid- or low-wire cordon-trained vines before bunch closing has been shown to reduce losses caused by Botrytis.

 

Strobilurins

 

Abound Flowable

 Abound is in the same general class of chemistry as Sovran, Flint and Pristine (strobilurin) and is registered for control of black rot, downy mildew, powdery mildew and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot.(The active ingredient of Abound is azoxystrobin and there are several labeled products with the same ai. These include Aframe, Azoxystar, Azteroid, Acadia 2SC, Satori and Trevo). Abound is excellent for control of black rot and downy mildew and provides good control of powdery mildew. Abound is recommended at the rate of 10.0 to 15.5 fl. oz. per acre.  In University tests, the rate of 11 to 12 fl. oz. provided good control of the above mentioned diseases.

 

NOTE:  Abound Flowable is very phytotoxic to apples of the variety McIntosh or varieties related to McIntosh.  Do not use the same sprayer to apply Abound to grapes that will be used to apply other materials to apples.  Do not allow spray to drift from grapes to apples.

 

Sovran

Sovran is in the same general class of chemistry as Abound, Flint, and Pristine (strobilurin). It is registered for control of black rot, powdery mildew, Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, and downy mildew.  The Sovran label gives different use rates for control of different diseases.  For black rot and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot the rate is 3.2 to 4.8 oz./A; for powdery mildew the rate is 3.2 to 4.8 oz./A and for downy mildew the rate is 4.0 to 6.4 oz./A. Sovran is excellent for control of black rot and powdery mildew, but is less effective than Abound for downy mildew control.  Under heavy disease pressure, Sovran may not provide adequate control of downy mildew even at the higher rate.  Unlike Abound, Sovran is not phytotoxic on certain apple varieties.  Sovran has a 14 day PHI.  See label for further information and certain use restrictions.

 

Flint

Flint is in the same general class of chemistry as Abound, Sovran and Pristine (strobilurin).  It is registered for control of black rot, powdery mildew and downy mildew. The Flint label provides different use rates for control of different diseases.  For powdery mildew the rate is 1.5 to 2.0 oz./A; for black rot the rate is 2.0 oz./A and for downy mildew suppression, the rate is 4.0 oz./A.  Flint is excellent for control of black rot and powdery mildew, but is not highly effective against downy mildew, and is not recommended for control of downy mildew.  Unlike Abound, Flint is not phytotoxic to certain apple varieties; however, Flint is very phytotoxic to Concord grapes.  The label states “Do not apply Flint to Concord grapes or crop injury may occur.” See label for further information and certain use restrictions.

 

Pristine

Pristine contains a combination of two active ingredients (pyraclostrobin, 12.8% and boscalid, 25.2%). Pyraclostrobin is in the same general class of chemistry as Abound, Sovran and Flint (strobilurin). Boscalid has excellent activity against powdery mildew and good activity against Botrytis. With increasing resistance in powdery mildew to the sterol inhibiting fungicides and the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Sovran and Flint). Pristine is an additional component in our resistance management programs for powdery mildew. Pristine is registered for control of anthracnose, black rot, downy mildew, powdery mildew and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, with “suppression only” of Botrytis gray mold. A maximum of five applications may be made per season. Do not make more than two sequential applications of Pristine before alternating to a labeled fungicide with a different mode of action. The label also states “DO NOT use on Concord or Noiret due to foliar injury. Possible foliar injury could occur to Worden, Fredonia, Niagara, Steuben, Rougeon or related grape varieties.”

 

Resistance Management

 

For Strobilurin Fungicides

Strobilurin fungicides are highly susceptible to resistance development. Do not apply sequential sprays of Abound (or other labeled products with an ai. of azoxystrobin), Sovran, Flint or Pristine before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Apply according to the label and no more than two times per year. Always read the label.

 

Important Note on Powdery Mildew:

In some locations, the powdery mildew fungus has developed resistance to the sterol-inhibiting fungicides such as Procure and the strobilurin fungicides (Abound, Sovran and Flint). All of these materials were highly effective for control of powdery mildew when they were first introduced, however in vineyards where these materials have been used for several years, reduced sensitivity or resistance may be present. For this reason, it is recommended that these materials not be used alone when powdery mildew needs to be controlled. To provide adequate control of powdery mildew, they should be mixed with sulfur, SuffOil-X, Quintec, Endura or potassium salts. Pristine is a combination of a strobilurin fungicide plus Endura; therefore, it can be used alone. Sulfur is an inexpensive and very effective fungicide for powdery mildew control. Unfortunately, some varieties are extremely sensitive to sulfur. On sulfur tolerant varieties, the use of sulfur should be considered.

 

Sulfur

There are many formulations of sulfur labeled for use on grapes with several options that are OMRI listed for use in organic growing.  Sulfur is available in dry flowable (DF) and flowable (F) formulations, as well as wettable powder (WP) and dusts (D). The dry flowable and flowable formulations greatly reduce the applicator’s exposure as compared to wettable powders and dusts.  Use rates are different for different formulations as well as time of application.  See the label for specific use rates.  Some grape varieties, such as Concord and other Labrusca (American) types, are extremely sensitive to sulfur. Any product with calcium polysulfide or sulfur should never be applied to Chambourcin or Norton once it has broken bud. For other varieties, you can apply sulfur products to foliage at appropriate rate but temperatures need to remain below 85 F during or immediately following application or scorching may occur. Consult label for best time of day to apply.  Sulfur loses efficacy for powdery mildew control at temperatures below 65 F.  If using Captan, check label for sulfur interaction issues.

 

Additional Pesticide Information

 

Table 11. Insecticides

Insecticides MOA Chemical Name REI PHI Signal Word
Abacus 6 Abamectin 12 hours/4 days 28 days Warning
Acramite 50WS 20D Bifenazate 12 hours 14 days Caution
Agri-Mek SCr 6 Abamectin 12 hrs/4 days 28 days Warning
Altacor 28 Chlorantraniliprole 4 hours 14 days Caution
Assail 30SG 4A Acetamiprid 12 hours 3 days Caution
Baythroid XLr 3A Cyfluthrin 12 hours 3 days Warning
Brigade 2ECr 3A Bifenthrin 12 hours 30 days Warning
Danitol 2.4ECr 3A Fenpropathrin 24 hours 21 days Warning
Delegate WG 5 Spinetoram 4 hours 7 days Caution
DeliverOMRI 11A Bt ssp. kurstaki 4 hours 0 days Caution
DiPel DFOMRI 11A Bt ssp. Kurstaki 4 hours 0 days Caution
Ecozin PlusOMRI UN Azadirachtin 4 hours 0 days Caution
Entrust SCOMRI 5 Spinosad 4 hours 7 days Caution
Envidor 2 SC 23 Spirodiclofen 12 hours 14 days Caution
GrandevoOMRI   Chromobacterium 4 hours 0 days Caution
Imidan 70-W 1B Phosmet 14 days 14 days Warning
Intrepid 2F 18 Methoxyfenozide 4 hours 30 days Caution
Intrepid Edge 18+5 Methoxyfenozide, Spinetoram 4 hours 30/21 days Caution
Kanemite 15 SC 20B Acequinocyl 12 hours 7 days Caution
Lorsban 4Er 1B Chlorpyrifos 24 hours 35 days Warning
Lorsban Advancedr 1B Chlorpyrifos 24 hours 35 days Warning
Movento 23 Spirotetramat 24 hours 7 days Caution
Mustang-Maxxr 3A Zeta-cypermethrin 12 hours 1 day Warning
Nealta 25A Cyflumetofen 12 hours 14 days Caution
Nexter 21A Pyridaben 12 hours 7 days Warning
Nexter SC 21A Pyridaben 12 hours 7 days Caution
Onager 10A Hexythiazox 12 hours 7 days Caution
Pasada 1.6F 4A Imidacloprid 12 hours 0 days Caution
Platinum, Platinum SG 4A Thiamethoxam 12 hours 60 days Caution
Portal XLO 21A Fenpyroximate 12 hours 14 days Warning
Provado 1.6 F 4A Imidacloprid 12 hours 0 days Caution
Pyganic EC 1.4OMRI 3A Pyrethrins 12 hours 0 days Caution
Sevin 4F, XLR Plus 1A Carbaryl 12 hours 7 days Caution
Scorpion 35SL 4A Dinotefuran 12 hours 1 day Caution
Superior Oil          
SpinTor 2SCOMRI 5 Spinosad 4 hours 7 days Caution
Vendex 50WPr 12B Fenbutatin-oxide 48 hours 28 days Danger
Zeal Miticide-1 10B Etoxazole 12 hours 14 days Caution

Table 12. Fungicides

Fungicides MOA Chemical Name REI PHI Signal Word
Abound Flowable 11 Azoxystrobin 4 hours 14 days Caution
Captan 50WP 80WDG M04 Captan 48/72 hours 0 days Warning
Elevate 50 WDG 17 Fenhexamid 12 hours 0 days Caution
Endura 7 Boscalid 12 hours 14 days Warning
Flint  11 Trifloxystrobin 12 hours 14 days Caution
Forum 40 Dimethomorph 12 hours 14 days Caution
KaligreenOMRI NC Potassium bicarbonate 4 hours 1 days Caution
Kenja 400SC 7 Isofetamid 12 hours 14 days Caution
Lime Sulfur M02   48 hours 0 days Danger
Luna Experience 7+3 Fluopyram, Tebuconazole 12 hours/5 days 14 days Caution
Mancozeb  M03 Mancozeb 24 hours  66 days Caution
Dithane, Manzate          
Mettle 125 ME 3 Tetraconazole 12 hours/7 days 14 days Caution
OxiDate 2.0OMRI   Hydrogen peroxide 1 hour 0 days Danger
    Peroxyacetic acid      
Phostrol P07 Phosphorous acid 4 hours 0 days Caution
Pristine 11+7 Pyraclostrobin, Boscalid 12 hours/5 days 14 days Caution
Procure 480SC 3 Triflumizole 12 hours/ 1 day 7 days Caution
ProPhyt P07 Phosphorous acid 4 hours 0 days Caution
Quintec 13 Quinoxyfen 12 hours 21 days Caution
Rally 40WSP 3 Myclobutanil 24 hours 14 days  Warning
Ranman 400 SC 21 Cyazofamid 12 hours 30 days Caution
Reason 500 SC 11 Fenamidone 12 hours 30 days Caution
Revus Top 40+3 Mandipropamid 12 hours 14 days Caution
    Difenoconazole      
Ridomil Gold Copper 4+M01 Mefenoxam, Copper hydroxide 48 hours 42 days Danger
Ridomil Gold MZ WG 4+M03 Mefenoxam, Mancozeb 48 hours 66 days Caution
Rovral 4F 2 Iprodione 48 hours 7 days Caution
Scala SC 9 Pyrimethanil 12 hours 7 days Caution
Sovran 11 Kresoxim-methyl 12 hours 14 days Caution
SuffOil-XOMRI NC Mineral Oil 4 hours   Caution
SulfurOMRI M02   24 hours  14 days Caution
Switch 62.5 WG 9+12 Cyprodinil, Fludioxonil 12 hours 7 days Caution
Topsin M 70 WSB 1 Thiophanate-methyl 2 days 7 days  Caution
Torino U6 Cyflufenamid 4 hours 3 days Caution
Vangard WG 9 Cyprodinil 12 hours 7 days Caution
Viathon P07+3 Potassium phosphite, 12 hours 14 days Caution
    Tebuconazole      
Vivando 50 Metrafenone 12 hours 14 days Caution
Zampro 45+40 Ametoctradin, Dimethomorph 12 hours 14 days Caution
Ziram 76DF M03 Ziram 48 hours 21 days Danger

 

Becky Carroll

Associate Extension Specialist,  Fruit & Pecans

 

Jennifer Olson

Associate Extension Specialist

 

Eric Rebek

Extension Entomologist and Professor

 

Brenda R. Sanders
Horticultural Communications

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