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Commercial Blackberry, Strawberry, and Blueberry Insect and Disease Control – 2015

The amount of insecticide or fungicide to use is given in per gal amounts for the home or backyard grower and in per 100 gal/acre amounts for the commercial grower. The home or backyard grower can determine the amount of spray needed to cover their plants completely by filling their sprayer with water and then spraying their plants until the water is almost ready to drip off the leaves. Determine how much water was used and add the correct amount of chemical from the appropriate table below. Commercial growers should calibrate their sprayers by spraying a measured area, measure the amount of water needed to refill the tank. Divide this amount by the fraction of an acre sprayed to get the gallons applied per acre. Mix the amount of chemical desired per acre with water to give this much spray material.

 

BLACKBERRIES*

For commercial growers, use the rate/acre column regardless of the amount of water you are spraying per acre. Read and follow all label directions. For home gardeners, if no rate is given then the product(s) are not recommended for home use.

 

Table 1.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
DORMANT: February - before bud break. Remove and destroy dead canes. This is a critical spray for good disease control especially if these diseases have been a serious problem Anthracnose Cane Blight Spur Blight (raspberries only) Lime-sulfur (M4) See label 12-24 gal
    Kocide 50WP (M4) See label 4 lbs
  Phytophthora Root Rot Aliette 80WDG (21) See label See label
    Ridomil Gold EC (4)    
PRE-BLOOM: Just before blossoms open. To protect bees do not use insecticides during bloom. Leafhoppers Aphids Leafrollers Malathion 57EC (1B) 0.66-1.5tbs 1.5-3 pts
    Brigade 2ECr (3)   3.2-6.4 oz
    Mustang-Maxr (3) - 4 oz
    Adjourn/Asana(3) - 4.8-9.6 oz
  Raspberry crown borer4 Altacor 35WG (28) - 3-4.5 oz
    Brigade 2ECr (3) 3 - 6.4 oz
    Brigade WSB r (3) - 16 oz
    Malathion 57EC (1B) 1.5 tbs 3 pt
  Strawberry Clipper Malathion 57EC (1B) 0.66-1.5tbs 1.5-3 pts
    Sevin 80WSP (1A)   1.25-2.5 lbs
    Brigade 2EC r (3) - 3.2-6.4 fl oz
    Brigade WSB r (3) - 8-16 oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 10.66-16 fl oz
  Flower Thrips Entrust SC (5) - 4-6 fl oz
    Delegate 25WG (5) - 3-6oz
    Assail 30SG (4A) - 4.5-5.3 oz
  Red necked cane borer5 Brigade 2EC r (3) - 3.2-6.4 fl oz
    Brigade WSB r (3) - 8-16 oz
    Malathion 57EC (1B) 1.5 tbs 3 pt
    Admire Pro - 10.5-14 fl oz
Fungicide applications prior to bloom should not be necessary unless these diseases have been a serious problem. This especially true if a dormant application of lime-sulfur is made. Anthracnose, Cane Blight and Spur Blight (reds only), *Raspberry leaf spot, *Septoria leaf spot Abound (11) - 6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz
    Captan 80 WDG (M4) - See label
  Rusts, Powdery Mildew,
*Raspberry leaf spot,
* Septoria leaf spot
Rally 40WSP(3) See Label 2.5 oz
    Cabrio (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz

Table 2.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
BLOOM THROUGH HARVEST: During bloom make three fungicide applications. The first should occur no later than 5% bloom; make the second application at full bloom; follow with the third application as petals begin to fall. To protect bees do not use Insecticides during bloom.  Anthracnose, Cane Blight and Spur Blight (reds only),
*Raspberry leaf spot,
*Septoria leaf spot
Same as Pre-Bloom    
  Rusts, Powdery Mildew,
*Raspberry leaf spot,
* Septoria leaf spot
Same as Pre-Bloom    
  Botrytis fruit rot (only) Rovral 50WP (2) - 1-2 lb
    Elevate 50WG (17) - 1.5 lb
    CaptEvate 68WDG (17, M4) - 3.5 lb
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz
  Spotted Wing Drosophila6 Brigade 2EC r (3) - 3.2-6.4 fl oz
    Malathion 57EC (1B) - 2-4pts
    Entrust 80WP (5) - 1.24-2 oz
    Delegate 25WG (5) - 3-6 oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 10.66-16 fl oz
  Mites Acramite 50WS (UN) - 0.75-1lb
    Savey 50DF (3) - 4-6 oz
  Stinkbugs
Plantbugs 
AsanaXL (3) - 4.8-9.6 fl oz
    Actara 25WDG (4A) - 3 oz
ANYTIME AFTER HARVEST: (Sept. 15-Oct. 1): Post harvest sprays are probably most important for leaf spot diseases. When diseases are severe, most defoliation occurs. Red Necked Cane Borer5 Remove and burn infested canes.    
  Raspberry Crown Borer5 Brigade 2ECr (3) - 6.4 oz
    Capture 2ECr (3) - 6.4 oz
    Altacor 35WG (28) - 3-4.5oz
    Malathion 57EC (1B) 1.5 tbs 3 pt
  Rusts, Powdery Mildew, *Raspberry leaf spot, *Septoria leaf spot Same as Bloom through harvest   post harvest
         

r Restricted Use Pesticide

  1. See Table 1 for date of last application prior to harvest.
  2. tbs = tablespoon; lb = pound; gal = gallon.
  3. Apply Brigade 2EC 2-4 qt/acre in a minimum of 100 gal of water as a drench to the crown area and lower canes. Drench will kill borers already hatched in soil. Applications made in fall Oct.-Nov. will have the best efficacy. Not recommended for homeowners.
  4. Raspberry crown borer is a significant pest of caneberries in Oklahoma and will eventually cause the demise of plants if left uncontrolled. Seasonal treatment each year is recommended. Capture applied in late October or early November as a soil drench to the lower canes and soil around the canes will provide excellent control if adequate (50-100 gallons/acre) water is applied with the material. This is a restricted use chemical, not recommended for home-owners.
  5. Red necked cane borer – The red necked cane borer is a 1/4 inch long beetle with a black head and wing covers, and a reddish thorax. Adults are typically present in brambles from May until June. Larval stage red necked cane borers tunnel within canes in a spiral fashion, producing 3” long swollen, galled areas. Galled canes should be rouged out and destroyed whenever they are found. Insecticide applications are only effective on the adults. In blocks with a history of red necked cane borer injury, scout for adults in May. Application of insecticides at petal fall and again in 10 to 14 days typically provides good control of red necked cane borer. Keep records to help refine pest management efforts in subsequent years.
  6. Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a new invasive insect pest that has been detected recently in many states including Oklahoma in 2013. The adult females lay their eggs in ripe fruit. After hatching, the larvae feed and cause damage to the fruit. Monitoring traps and ripe fruit should be evaluated weekly from ripening until harvest. A spray program should begin when SWD is detected in monitoring traps or fruit. Sprays should be timed 7 days apart unless a rain event occurs then reapplication will be necessary.

 

* All diseases, information and fungicide treatments are applicable to both blackberries and raspberries unless otherwise noted.

 

STRAWBERRIES

Read and follow all label directions. For commercial growers, use the rate per acre column, regardless of the amount of water you are spraying per acre. For home gardeners, if no rate is given then the product is not recommended for home use.

 

 

Table 3.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
PRE-BLOOM: Just before bloom (separation of blossom buds). Timing is important in controlling the strawberry weevil. To protect bees do not use  insecticides during bloom. Leaf Spot, Leaf scorch, Leaf blight, Powdery mildew, Anthracnose3      
    Captan 50WP (M4) - 6 lb
    Nova 40WP (3) - 2.5 – 5.0 oz
    Cabrio 20EG (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5 – 23 oz
    Abound (11) - 6.2 – 15.4 oz
  Phytophthora diseases (red stele and Leather rot) Ridomil Gold EC (4) - 1 pt
    Aliette 80 WDG (21) - 2.5-5 lb
  Strawberry root weevil Brigade WSB (3) - 8-32 oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66-1.5 tbs 1.5-2.5 pt
  Strawberry Clipper Brigade WSB (3) - 6.4-32 oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 10 2/3 oz
    Lorsban 4E (1B) - 1qt
    Sevin 4F(1A) - 1-2 qt
  Tarnished Plant Bug Spittlebug Sevin 4F (1A) - 1-2 qt
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 10.67 oz
    Brigade WSBr (3) - 8.0-32.0 oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66-1.5 tbs 1.5-2.5 pts
  Flower Thrips Assail 30SC (4) - 4-6.9 oz
    SpinTor 2SC (5) - 4-6 fl oz
    Radiant 1SC (5) - 6-10 fl oz
    Entrust 2SC(5) - 4-6 fl oz
  Spider Mites Acramite 50WS (UN) - 0.75-1.0 lb
    Kanemite 15SC(20B) - 21-31oz
    Portal (21A) - 2 pt
    Oberon (23) - 12-16 fl oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 10.67oz
    Agri-Mek 0.15EC (6) - 16fl oz
    Zeal 72WSP (10B) - 2-3 oz
         
         

 

 

Table 4.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
BLOOM: This is the most critical period for control of Botrytis fruit rot with fungicides. To protect bees, do not use insecticides during bloom. Botrytis Blossom Blight and Fruit Rot      
    Topsin M WSB (1) - ¾-1lb
    Elevate 50WG (17) - 1.5 lb
    Switch (9) - 11-14 oz
    Captan 50WP (M4) - 6 lb
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5 – 23 oz
  Anthracnose Abound (11) - 6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz
    Switch (9) - 11-14 oz
    Captan 50WP (M4) - 6 lb
  Leaf Spot, Leaf scorch, Leaf blight, 
Powdery mildew3
Abound (11)   6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11)   14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7)   18.5-23 oz
    Rally 40WSP (3)   2.5-5 oz
    Procure 50WS (3)   4-8 oz

 

Table 5.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
POST BLOOM: After the blossoms have fallen. Aphids      
    Brigade WSBr (3) - 8.0-32.0 oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66 tbs 1.5 pts
    Pasada 1.6F (4A) - 3.75 oz
    Thiodan 3EC (2A) - 1.3 qt
    Admire Pro (4) - 10.5-14 fl oz
    Provado 1.6F (4) - 3.8 oz
    Actara (4) - 1.5-3 oz
  Leafrollers Danitol 2.4EC (3)   10.66 oz
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) 0.24-1.4 tsp 0.5-4.0 lbs
    Sevin 4F (1A) or 2-4 tbs 2-4 lb
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66-1.5 tbs 1.5-2.5 pts
  Sowbugs Sevin 4F (1A)  2-4 tbs 1-2 qts2-4 lb
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66-1.5 tbs 1.5-2.5 pts
  Tarnished Plant Bug Rimon 0.83EC(15)   6.4-32oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3)   10.67oz
    Brigade WSBr (3)   8.0-32.0 oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66-1.5 tbs 1.5-2.5 pts
  Spider Mites Acramite 50WS (UN)   0.75-1.0 lb
    Kanemite 15SC (20B)   21-31 oz
    Portal (21A)   2 pt
    Oberon (23)   12-16 fl oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3)   10.67 oz
    Agri-Mek 0.15EC (6)   16fl oz
    Zeal 72WSP (10B)   2-3 oz
  Spotted Wing Drosophila* Brigade WSBr (3)   6.4-32 oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3)   10.67fl oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B)   1.5 pt
    Radiant SC (5)   6-10 fl oz
  Botrytis Blossom Blight and Fruit Rot Same as Bloom. Subsequent applications may be necessary. Check label for recommendations and restrictions near harvest.    
  1. See Table 1 for date of last application prior to harvest. If no number is provided then that chemical cannot be used on that crop
  2. tbs = tablespoon; tsp = teaspoon; pt = pint; qt = quart; lb = pound; gal = gallon.
  3. Rally is highly effective for control of powdery mildew and leaf blight. Captan and will not control powdery mildew. Cabrio, Pristine, and Abound are registered for Leafspot, Powdery Mildew and Anthracnose.

 

* Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a new invasive insect pest that has been detected recently in many states including Oklahoma in 2013. The adult females lay their eggs in ripe fruit. After hatching, the larvae feed and cause damage to the fruit. Monitoring traps and ripe fruit should be evaluated weekly from ripening until harvest. A spray program should begin when SWD is detected in monitoring traps or fruit. Sprays should be timed 7 days apart unless a rain event occurs then reapplication will be necessary.

 

BLUEBERRIES

For commercial growers, use the rate/acre column regardless of the amount of water you are spraying per acre. Read and follow all label directions. For home gardeners, if no rate is given, then the product is not recommended for home use.

 

 

 

Table 6.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
DELAYED DORMANT: Just before bud break Scale insects      
    Superior Oil 4 tbs 3 gal
    Lime sulfur (M4) 7 tbs 5 gal
  Phomopsis cane and Twig Blight Phytophthora Root Rot Lime sulfur (M4) 7 tbs 5 gal
    Ridomil Gold EC (4) - 3.6 pt
    Alliette 80WDG (21) - 5 lb
PRE-BLOOM: Just before blossoms open Leafrollers      
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) 0.12-0.5 tsp 0.5-4.0 lb
    Mustang-Maxr (3)   4 oz
    Sevin 50W (1A) 2-4 tbs 2-4 lb
  Blossom weevil Sevin 50W (1A) 2-4 tbs 2-4 lb
  Mummy berry (shoot blight phase) Ziram 76DF (M4) 2 tbs 3 lb
    Captan 50WP (M4) - 5 lb
    Indar 75 WSP (3) - 2 oz
  Stem Canker and Stem blight Captan 50WP (M4) - 5 lb
    Ziram 76DF (M4) - 3 lb
MID-BLOOM: Do not use  chemical insecticides during bloom. Leafrollers      
    Dipel, Javelin 2 tsp 2 qt
    Mustang-Maxr (3) - 4 oz
    Thuricide (11B2) 1.5 tsp 1 lb
  Mummy berry (blossom infection), botrytis blight, Stem canker and stem blight, Anthracnose Abound (11) - 6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz
    CaptEvate 68WDG (17, M4) - 3.5-4.7 lb
    Ziram 76DF (M4) - 3 lb
  Botrytis blight Elevate 50WG (17) - 1.5 lb
    CaptEvate 68WDG (17, M4) - 3.5-4.7 lb

 

Table 7.

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Gallon Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
FIRST POST-POLLINATION:  (about May 25 to June 1) Leafrollers Leafhoppers
Leaf Miners
Cherry Fruitworm
Aphids
Plum Curculio
Anthracnose, Stem canker
and stem blight
     
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) 0.12-0.5 tsp 0.5-4.0 lb
    Mustang-Maxr (3) (Leafrollers only) - 4 oz
    Lannate LVr (1A) 1 tsp 1.5-3 pt
    Sevin XLR Plus (1A) 1 tbs 1.5-2 qt
    Adjournr(3) - 4.8-9.6 oz
    Abound (11) - 6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11) - 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) - 18.5-23 oz
    Captan 50WP (M4)3 - 5 lb
SECOND POST POLLINATION: 7-12 days after First Post-Pollination Spray Leafhoppers Leaf Miners
Leafrollers
Cherry Fruitworm 
Same as First Post-Pollination Spray.    
  Anthracnose, Stem canker and stem blight Same as First Post-Pollination Spray    
ADDITIONAL COVER SPRAYS:  Apply every 7-12 days as needed. Leafrollers, Leaf Miners, Fall Webworms      
    Guthion 50WPr (1B) 0.5 tsp 1.5 lb
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) (Not for Leaf Miners 0.12-0.5 tsp 0.5-4.0 lb
  Anthracnose, Stem canker and stem blight Same as Second Post-Pollination Spray    
  Flatheaded Apple Tree Borer* Sevin XLR - 1-2 qt
    Sevin 80S (1A) - 1.5-2.4 lb
    Imidan 70W - 1.3 lb
  Spotted Wing Drosophila** Mustang Maxr (3) - 4 fl oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) - 16 fl oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 0.66 tbs 1.5 pt
    Delegate
WG (5) 
- 3-6 fl oz
MAGGOTS: When flies start to lay eggs (about June 28). Repeat every 10 days through harvest. Blueberry Maggot      
    Malathion 25WP (1B) 2 tbs 4 lb
    Sevin XLR Plus (1A) 1 tbs 1.5-2 qt
    Lannate LVr (1A) - 0.75-1.5 pts
POST-HARVEST: If canker is a problem, apply post-harvest sprays at 4-6 week intervals until leaf drop in the fall. Stem canker and stem blight      
    Captan 50WP (M4) - 5lb

 Table 7. cont

Application and Timing Pests Involved Amount of Materials Needed2: Material1 (MOA Group) Amount of Materials Needed2: Per Acre
FIRST POST-POLLINATION:  (about May 25 to June 1) Leafrollers Leafhoppers 
Leaf Miners 
Cherry Fruitworm 
Aphids
Plum Curculio 
Anthracnose, Stem canker
and stem blight
   
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) 0.5-4.0 lb
    Mustang-Maxr (3) (Leafrollers only) 4 oz
    Lannate LVr (1A) 1.5-3 pt
    Sevin XLR Plus (1A) 1.5-2 qt
    Adjournr(3) 4.8-9.6 oz
    Abound (11) 6.2-15.4 oz
    Cabrio (11) 14 oz
    Pristine (11, 7) 18.5-23 oz
    Captan 50WP (M4)3 5 lb
SECOND POST POLLINATION: 7-12 days after First Post-Pollination Spray Leafhoppers Leaf Miners
Leafrollers
Cherry Fruitworm
Same as First Post-Pollination Spray.  
  Anthracnose, Stem canker and stem blight Same as First Post-Pollination Spray  
ADDITIONAL COVER SPRAYS:  Apply every 7-12 days as needed. Leafrollers, Leaf Miners, Fall Webworms    
    Guthion 50WPr (1B) 1.5 lb
    Javelin (B.t.) (11B2) (Not for Leaf Miners
or Leafhoppers)
0.5-4.0 lb
  Anthracnose, Stem canker and stem blight Same as Second Post-Pollination Spray  
  Flatheaded Apple Tree Borer* Sevin XLR 1-2 qt
    Sevin 80S (1A) 1.5-2.4 lb
    Imidan 70W 1.3 lb
  Spotted Wing Drosophila** Mustang Maxr (3) 4 fl oz
    Danitol 2.4EC (3) 16 fl oz
    Malathion 57% EC (1B) 1.5 pt
    Delegate
WG (5)
3-6 fl oz
MAGGOTS: When flies start to lay eggs (about June 28). Repeat every 10 days through harvest. Blueberry Maggot    
    Malathion 25WP (1B) 4 lb
    Sevin XLR Plus (1A) 1.5-2 qt
    Lannate LVr (1A) 0.75-1.5 pts
POST-HARVEST: If canker is a problem, apply post-harvest sprays at 4-6 week intervals until leaf drop in the fall. Stem canker and stem blight    
    Captan 50WP (M4) 5lb

 

  1. See Table 1 for date of last application prior to harvest.
  2. tbs = tablespoon; tsp = teaspoon; pt = pint; qt = quart; gal = gallon; lb = pound3Apply only if these diseases are a problem. Observe harvest restrictions.

r Restricted Use Pesticide.


** Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a new invasive insect pest that has been detected recently in many states including Oklahoma in 2013. The adult females lay their eggs in ripe fruit. After hatching, the larvae feed and cause damage to the fruit. Monitoring traps and ripe fruit should be evaluated weekly from ripening until harvest. A spray program should begin when SWD is detected in monitoring traps or fruit. Sprays should be timed 7 days apart unless a rain event occurs then reapplication will be necessary. See the OSU SWD fact sheet for more information on monitoring and management of SWD.

 

TABLE 1. DAYS WAITING TIME - LAST APPLICATION BEFORE HARVEST

 

CHEMICAL Number of Days Before Harvest: BLACKBERRIES Number of Days Before Harvest: STRAWBERRIES Number of Days Before Harvest: BLUEBERRIES
Abacusr - 3 -
Abound 0 0 0
Acramite - 1 -
Adjourn - - -
Agri-mek 0.15 EC - 3 -
Aliette 80 WDG 60 0 0
Atrapa 8E 1 3 1
Brigade 2ECr 3 - -
Brigade WSBr 0 0 -
B.t. (Dipel, Javelin, Thuricide) 0 0 0
Cabrio 0 0 0
Captan 3 0 0
Dicofol 4E - 2 -
Elrvate 50WG 0 0 -
Guthionr 14 5 -
Imidan 50WP or 70WP - - -
Javelin 0 0 0
Kelthane - 2 -
Lannate LVr - 3 (Fresh) 3
  - 10 (Processing) -
Lorsban 4Er - 21 -
Malathion 1 3 1
Nova 40W 0 0 -
Pasada - 7 -
Pristine 0 0 0
Procure 50WS   1 -
Ridomil Gold EC 60 (raspberries only) - -
Sevin 7 - -
Switch 0 0 0
Thiodan 3EC - 1 -
Topsin M WSB 1 1 -
Vendex 50WPr - 4 -
Zeal - 1 -
Ziram - - 14

 

r Restricted Use Pesticide.


*Guthion 2L - up to 3 oz - 0 days; above 3 oz - 7 days. Application by backpack or hand wand sprayers is prohibited. Re-entry period is 4-5 days, 5 days if area receives less than 24 inches of annual rainfall.


Publications that may be helpful: Fact Sheets HLA-6213, Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops; HLA-6214, Growing Strawberries in the Home Garden; EPP-7612, Plant Disease Diagnostic Service; HLA-6239, Commercial Blackberry Production; HLA-6215, Home Culture of Blackberries.

 

CULTURAL CONTROL METHODS

With more chemicals being removed from the market, growers must have successful ways of controlling disease and insects through cultural means. Disease and insects may be controlled or the effects of these pests can be reduced using cultural methods. The methods to consider are site selection, maintaining good soil conditions, sanitation, and purchase of healthy, and where available, resistant varieties.


A well chosen site includes good air drainage to reduce spring frost damage, circulation, and adequate soil water drainage. Sites with these qualities improve plant growth and decrease plant susceptibility to insects and disease. Orienting rows for good sun exposure and natural air movement will dry leaves and fruit quickly. Raised beds improve soil drainage and reduce infections by root diseases. Proper site selection to decrease plant stresses, such as cold injury and buffeting by winds, can reduce attack by insects and diseases. New plantings located near old established areas may have greater risks of insect and disease populations from the old sites than plantings on isolated areas. Destroying native plant species in the immediate area that harbor harmful insects or diseases can reduce pest problems.


An important disease and insect control procedure is the planting of adapted, healthy, disease and insect resistant varieties. Plants should be purchased from reliable sources, and only healthy looking stock planted. Variety selection should be based on adaptation to the area, such as cold hardiness, heat tolerance, adaptation to soils, and ability to produce acceptable yields of high quality fruit. Varieties will vary in the degree of susceptibility to an insect or disease. The nursery, supplier or county agent should have a recent list of adaptive and resistant cultivars that are available for planting in Oklahoma.


Maintaining proper soil moisture and fertilization can insure healthy plants. These plants will be more resistant to disease and insect damage than plants over or under fertilized or watered. Annual leaf analysis and soil analysis can be used to determine fertilization rates. Rainfall and soil moisture should be monitored to determine when to irrigate plants. Tensiometers, watermarks or some other form of measuring soil moisture may be used to determine when irrigation is necessary in larger plantings. This may not be necessary in smaller plantings where rainfall and stress of plants can be monitored directly.

 

Sanitation is important in controlling some insects, and especially in controlling diseases. Diseased and dead branches should be removed and when necessary, entire plants should be removed to reduce overwintering sites for insects and pathogens. These infected materials should be burned or removed from the site. Unharvested fruit, leaf litter and pruning’s should be removed to decrease the spread and population increase of insects and diseases. Pruning equipment should be disinfected before, during and after use to avoid transmitting disease during pruning. A solution of 10% chlorine bleach and 90% water is a good disinfectant.


Weed control is essential for plant growth and production. Economic losses due to weeds are sometimes greater than those caused by insects or diseases. Weeds compete directly with crops for nutrients, water and light and serve as hosts for insects and diseases. Weeds may also interfere with pesticide application, harvesting and air circulation in planting. To control weeds, an integrated program using cultural practices (such as pulling or hoeing weeds) along with herbicides is the most effective. Suitable herbicides for weed control in small fruit plantings are listed in Fact Sheet 6243, “Weed Control in Small Fruit Crops.”


The above cultural practices along with timely applications of pesticides will produce high quality fruit. It is usually necessary to use each of these cultural methods along with pesticides to attain good control leading to healthier plants, higher quality fruit and greater yields.


Following is a list of specific cultural methods for controlling various insects and diseases in blueberry, strawberry and blackberry production. These methods can be used alone or in conjunction with insecticides and fungicides to limit the spread of insects and diseases.

 

BLUEBERRY

Red and necrotic ringspot and blueberry stunt


Plant disease-free stock. Remove and burn diseased plants. Control insects which may be vectors of disease.

 

Phytophthora root rot
Limit movement of soil and water to lessen disease damage.

 

Anthracnose
No cultural method of control.


Botrytis, blossom and fruit rots
Ensure good air circulation and sun exposure to quickly dry wet leaves.

 

Phomopsis twig and cane blight
Prune and burn diseased wood.

 

Stem canker (various fungi)
Purchase disease-free stock. Purchase resistant varieties. Remove dead and dying branches 6-8 inches below diseased wood.

 

Climbing cutworm
Hand pick off of blossom when they become numerous enough to warrant control.

 

Blueberry bud mite
Selectively prune out old canes to reduce populations. Choose non-susceptible varieties.

 

Fall webworm
Destroy webs by hand.

 

STRAWBERRY

 

Strawberry weevil
Use the same bed less than three years. Plow under old beds immediately after harvest. Renovate existing beds by mowing or removing foliage and mulch.


Mites
Purchase mite-free stock. Isolate new plantings from established plantings. Make sure plants are healthy and well-watered. Use a water hose to wash mites from plants.


Lygus bugs
Control weeds in and near planting to reduce host plants from insects and disease.
Weeds or alfalfa that have been growing should not be removed during the strawberry blossom period, because the insects will move into the strawberries.


Leaf spot
Plant disease-free stock.


Powdery mildew
Kill or burn leaves which fungal structures are on. Purchase resistant varieties.


Leaf scorch
Frequent renewal of plantings. Purchase resistant varieties.


Anthracnose
Remove plant debris and mulch. Purchase resistant varieties, where available. Use only enough fertilizer to establish plants, but do not over fertilize them. If any signs of anthracnose occur, discontinue all applications of nitrogen and potassium.

 

BLACKBERRY

 

Anthracnose
Remove and burn old canes.


Cane borers
Remove and burn infested canes.

 

 

Jackie Lee

Extension Entomologist

 

Phil Mulder

Extension Entomologist

 

Damon Smith

Former Extension Plant Pathologist

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