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Management of Insects and Mites in Tree Nurseries

Insect and mite pests of nursery crops present unique challenges and opportunities with respect to their management and control. Nurseries produce a wide variety of ornamental plants, ranging from trees to bedding plants, annuals to perennials, and both woody and herbaceous crops. This diversity and high density of plants requires varied and often conflicting horticultural practices, and creates an environment that supports a larger number of arthropod species than is encountered in less diverse cropping systems. Many of these arthropods are pests, kept under control by beneficial arthropods such as predators and parasitoids (i.e., natural enemies). However, natural enemies are susceptible to broad-spectrum pesticides applied during nursery production. Thus, effective alternatives to chemical control should be incorporated into production systems, reducing negative impacts on natural enemies, pollinators, and other beneficial arthropods.


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to managing pests that combines biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks. Many pest populations in nurseries can be reduced by implementing and following a comprehensive IPM plan. At a minimum, such a plan should include the following:

 

  • Correct identification of arthropod pests and their associated plant damage
  • Regular monitoring and scouting for pests, documented with accurate recordkeeping
  • Inspection and, when necessary, quarantine of incoming nursery stock
  • Maintaining health and vigor of nursery stock

 

Pesticides can be part of a comprehensive IPM plan, but pesticide use should not substitute for good horticultural practices or be used as ‘preventative insurance’ against pests. Such practices are rarely justifiable economically, and provide a recipe for the selection and proliferation of pests that are resistant to pesticides. Overreliance on chemical control may lead to rapid resurgence of pest populations as key natural enemies are eliminated following exposure to pesticides. Pesticides should be applied using specified application methods and equipment to ensure optimal control and safety. Follow ALL label directions and adhere to Worker Protection Standards and special precautions including protection of pollinators, aquatic organisms, and other non-target species. Pesticide recommendations in this publication are current as of the “Modified Date.”

 

Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
ANTS Baits       Baits may be applied as a broadcast or perimeter treatment around individual mounds. Apply when ants are foraging.
Includes red imported fire ants and harvester ants Abamectin Award II Fire Ant Bait 6 See label  
  Fipronil   2B 24 Check registration for specific site uses. Some bait products are not registered for nurseries.
Social insects that live in colonies. Size and color variable, depending on species. All have characteristic narrow "waist." Hydramethylnon Amdro Pro Fire Ant Killer 20A 12  
Ants build mounds and sometimes clear bare areas in turf. Red imported fire ants and red harvester ants can inflict a painful sting. Some people are hypersensitive to the sting Pyriproxyfen Distance Fire Ant Bait 7C 12  
  S-Methoprene Extinguish Professional Fire Ant Bait 7A 4  
No specific treatment threshold has been established. Ants can be managed with baits or registered turf insecticide applications as mound drenches or perimeter sprays. S-Methoprene + Hydramethylnon Extinguish Plus 7A + 20A 12  
For detailed control options of fire ants, see CR-7309: treatment Options for Controlling Red Imported Fire Ants Spinosad Conserve Professional Fire Ant Bait 5 4  
  Sprays and Granulars        
   Bifenthrin  Talstar 3A 12  
   Carbaryl  Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
   Cyfluthrin + Imidacloprid  Discus N/G 3 + 4A 12  
   Lambda-cyhalothrin  Scimitar GC 3A 24  
   Permethrin  Astro 3A 12  
APHIDS          
Measure 1/8 to 1/5 inch long Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera.
  Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Pear-shaped, soft-bodied, sucking insects. Active all growing season. Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar
spray. Use non-ionic spreader-sticker adjuvant, but observe phytotoxicty precautions associated with surfactant.
  Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Use for suppression and adult feeding deterrence.
Aphids secrete honeydew (sticky, sugar-like material), which may attract ants and flies and provide growing media for sooty mold. Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco UN + 6 12 Provides suppression only.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Aphids generally attack the tender terminals and leaves. Leaves may twist and curl and become distorted. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Small infestations can be often washed off plants with strong water pressure (stream of water) Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10–14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Provides suppression only. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 Must be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Pymetrozine Endeavor 9B 12 Has systemic activity. Prevents insects from feeding by blocking mouthparts
  Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Use for suppression only. Does not control adults
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
  Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
BAGWORM          
Measure 1-2 inches long (bagworm case) Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4  
Active May through September Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A 4 Insects must consume material. Most effective against young bagworms.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Common caterpillar pests on cedars, arborvitae, and sometimes feed on bald cypress, elms, pines, willows, maples, sycamores, and other trees. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Small infestations can be removed by hand in winter before larvae emerge in May, but be sure to destroy all bags. Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when bagworms are small and actively feeding.
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
BORERS          
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.
Make sure label specifically lists the type of borer you are trying to control Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
Pheromone traps may be used for early detection of clearwing moth adults Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B 24 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.
  Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
For detailed information about managing borers, see EPP-7326: Woodborers Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.
BOXELDER BUG and RED-SHOULDERED BUG          
Measure 1/2 to 1 3/4 inches long Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Feed on seeds of boxelder, golden raintree, and soapberry, but don't injure the tree Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
For best results, spray in early summer when young nymphs are present Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  

 

Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
CATERPILLARS          
  Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Includes cankerworms, webworms, tent caterpillars, and leafrollers/leaftiers Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray
  Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4  
Measure 1/2 to 2 inches long Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A 4 Insects must consume material. Most effective against young caterpillars.
Active spring through fall Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Larvae feed on foliage. Some species roll and tie leaves with silk and some build webs or tents around foliage or in crotches of limbs Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
  Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or Suffoil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals
  Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Use against armyworms only.
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO   Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when larvae are small and actively feeding
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
ELM LEAF BEETLES, WILLOW LEAF BEETLES, and ELM CALLIGRAPHA BEETLES          
  Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Adults measure 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. Larvae measure 1/4 to 3/8 inch long Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
These leaf-feeding beetles are active late spring to late summer. Both adults and larvae feed on foliage, but larvae cause the most damage by skeletonizing the leaves Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systematic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Effective against larvae and adults.
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
JAPANESE BEETLES and MAY/JUNE BEETLES          
Measure 1/2 to 3/4 inch long Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
June beetles active at night April through September. Japanese beetles active during the day late June through July Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray. Tank mix with an appropriate surfactant.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
June beetles occasionally feed on foliage of American elm and other trees Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12  
Japanese beetles are serious pests, feeding on foliage, fruits, and flowers of many landscape plants Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12  
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do no apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
LACE BUGS          
Measure 1/8 inch long Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Tiny mottled, brown to black and grey insects with long, lace-like wings. Suck sap from underside of leaves, causing them to become mottled with gray or brown spots Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Active spring through summer Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Common on sycamores, elms and some oaks, pyracantha, and occasionally azaleas Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12  
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
Small infestations can be waashed off plants/foliage with strong water pressure (stream of water) Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do no apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
  Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
LEAFMINERS and NEEDLEMINERS          
Includes blotch, serpentine, and tentiform leafminers, so named for the shape of their tunnels Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Repeat at 7-day intervals or as necessary to maintain control
Larvae measure 1/8 to 1/4 inch long Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Leafminers are the tiny larvae of several moth, fly, and sawfly species that feed between the upper and lower leaf surfaces Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray.
Active spring through summer Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Foliar application for control of larvae. Use with paraffinic oil
Seldom cause extensive damage. Prune and burn twigs or leaves when possible Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco UN + 6 12 Effective against boxwood leafminer.
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
  Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24 Controls adults only.
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently
  Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Use for suppression only.
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil UN 4 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. Use with azadirachtin
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12  
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when stippling or mining first appear. Three sequential applications at 7-day intervals can maximize control of leaf-mining flies.
MITES          
Measure 1/60 inch long Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12  
Active spring to early fall; spider mites frequently become a per crop severe problem in hot, dry weather Acequinocyl Shuttle O 20B 12 Allow a minimum of 14 days between applications
Frequently, two or more applications at 7-day intervals will be needed to reduce mite populations Bifenazate Floramite SC UN 12 Not effective against rust mites, broad mites, nor flat mites
Mites can be difficult to control, thus, consider alternating chemicals at the different treatment intervals Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco UN + 6 12 Do not make more than two applications per year
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
  Clofentezine Ovation SC 10A 12 Apply only once per cropping cycle
  Cyflumetofen Sultan 25 12 Not effective against broad mites, bulb mites, cyclamen mites, flat mites, nor rust mites.
  Etoxazole TetraSan 5 WDG 10B 12 Kills all life stages, including eggs
  Fenbutatin-oxide Vendex 50 WP† or Meraz Miticide WSP 12B 48/48 Do not tank mix with paraffinic oil.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
  Hexythiazox Hexygon DF 10A 12 Activity predominantly against eggs and immature mites.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Propargite Omite 30 WS 12C 14 days Do not tank mix with petroleum-based oils.
  Pyridaben Sanmite 21A 12  
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when spider mites first appear prior to webbing
  Spirodiclofen Envidor 2 SC 23 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only. Apply only once per season.
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12 Provides suppression of spider mites only.
PINE TIP MOTHS         Use pheromone traps to time insecticide applications. Applications should be made 10-14 days after moth flight begins. Multiple applications are usually needed
Larvae measure 1/2 inch long Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions
Active March to September Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
LArvae bore into buds, trunk, stems, and twigs. Most species of 2- and 3-needle pines are subject to attack; however, slash, Austrian, and long-leaf pines are somewhat resistant. Infested shoots usually turn yellow and later, red and brown. Dead, hollowed-out buds and twigs are usually present. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. Treat trunk, stems, twigs and foliage
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Females emerge and lay eggs from late March through late May. Larvae must be controlled before they bore into plant. Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12  
For best protection with sprays, apply at 20-day intervals from late March through the end of June Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
For more information, see EPP-7645: Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Pyridalyl Overture 35 WP UN 12 For use on trees or shrubs in enclosed production facilities only
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when young larvae first appear.

 

Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
PLANT GALLS          
Plant galls on branches can be removed by pruning and destroying the gall-infested material Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
Plant galls are usually a cosmetic problem and difficult to control with insecticides. Timing of application is critical Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 For use against dipterous (fly) gall midges only
For more information, see EPP-7168: Plant
Galls Caused by Insects and Mites.
Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG 4A 12 Apply during egg laying. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
SCALES and MEALYBUGS          
Includes brown elm scale, euonymus scale, and longtailed mealybug Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray
Active during growing season Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Soft scales and mealybugs produce honeydew while armored scales do not Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions: BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Some insecticide products do not control armored scales Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
Most non-systemic contact insecticides cannot penetrate protective, waxy layer of scales. Thus, apply sprays to target crawler (nymph) stage. Use double sided sticky tape to monitor crawler activity Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
Check label for specific scale pests; some products are only effective against soft scales Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Works only on crawlers
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12 Provides suppression only
  Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
THRIPS          
Measure 1/16 inch long Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera
Active spring and summer Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray
These tiny insects are difficult to control due to their small size and tendency to hide in flowers and under foliage. The body tapers toward the end of the abdomen and both pairs of wings are fringed with hairs Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Controls immature stages only
  Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco UN + 6 12 Provides suppression only
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Feeding causes small spots of discoloration on leaves and flowers. As feeding continues and populations increase, small spots often coalesce into large blotches Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
  Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
Thorough coverage of sprays is important for effective thrips control Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals
  Novaluron Pedestal 15 12  
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4  
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
  Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG 4A 12 Provides suppression only. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
 WHITEFLIES          
 Measure 1/8 inch long.  Abamectin  Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2  6  12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera.
Active summer through early fall Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray
  Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Controls immature stages only.
  Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco UN + 6 12 Provides suppression only
  Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
Tiny insects. Adults have yellow bodies and white wings. Adults and nymphs commonly found on underside of leaves Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Labeled for ash whitefly control. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom
  Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
Adults and nymphs feed on plant sap with piercing-sucking mouthparts and cause yellowing of leaves. Often "white clouds" of adults fly out of disturbed foliage Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
  Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions
For effective whitefly control, ensure thorough coverage by wetting plants to dripping point. Aim for coverage of the underside of leaves and penetrate dense foliage. Repeat applications are frequently needed Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar the spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X HO 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals
  Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Active on nymphs
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil HO 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Permethrin Astro 3A 12  
  Pymetrozine Endeavor 9B 12 Has systemic activity. Prevents insects from feeding by blocking mouthparts
  Pyridaben Sanmite 21 12 Works on nymphs and adults
  Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Only effective against nymphs.
  Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
   Thiamethoxam  Flagship 25 WG  4A  12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

 

Restricted Use Pesticide


** REI = Restricted Entry Interval (in hours, unless otherwise noted); workers not allowed to enter into treated area until the REI has elapsed.

 

* The numbers associated with the pesticide class column were developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, (IRAC) in 2005. It is intended to help in the selection of insecticides for preventative resistance management. If you make multiple applications for a specific pest or group of pests during a growing sequence, simply select a registered insecticide with a different number for each generation (14-21 days). You can rotate within the same number if more than one subgroup is available (Example: 2A and 2B). To further delay resistance from developing, integrate other control methods into your pest management programs.

 

   
1A= Carbamates 14= Nereistoxin analogues
1B= Organophosphates 15= Benzoylureas
2A= Cyclodiene organochlorines 16= Buprofezin
2B= Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) 17= Cyromazine
3A= Pyrethroids, Pyrethrins 18= Diacylhydrazines
3B= DDT, Methoxychlor 19= Amitraz
4A= Neonicitinoids 20A= Hydramethylnon
4B= Nicotine 20B= Acequinocyl
4C= Sulfoxaflor 20C= Fluacrypyrim
4D= Butenolides 21A= METI acaricides and insecticides
5= Spinosyns 21B= Rotenone
6= Avermectins, Milbemycins 22A = Indoxacarb
7A= Juvenile hormone analogues 22B= Metaflumizone
7B= Fenoxycarb 23= Tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives
7C= Pyriproxyfen 24A= Phosphine
8A= Alkyl halides 24B= Cyanides
8B= Chloropicrin 25= Beta-ketonitrile derivatives
8C= Sulfuryl fluoride (fumigant) 26= (unassigned)
8D= Borax 27= (unassigned)
8E= Tartar emetic 28= Diamides
8F= Methyl isothiocyanate generators UN= Unknown mode of action
9B= Pymetrozine NS= Non-specified, multi-site
9C= Flonicamid M= Microbials
10A= Clofentezine, Hexythiazox, Diflovidazin BLO= Biological organisms
10B= Etoxazole  
11A= Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce  
11B= Bacillus sphaericus  
12A= Diafenthiuron  
12B= Organotin miticide  
12C= Propargite  
12D= Tetradifon  
13= Chlorfenapyr, DNOC, Sulfluramid  

 

Notes:

 

  1. Before purchasing and using any pesticide, read the label carefully for registered use(s), rates, and application frequency. Also note toxicity category on the label of each pesticide since toxicity ratings may affect reentry intervals and note any ventilation requirements. Wear protective clothing as recommended on each pesticide label.
  2. When using horticultural oils it is important to not use oils with insecticidal soap or any sulfur containing compounds. Also, do not use horticultural oils in sprayers in which fungicides have been used. Frequent agitation is required when using horticultural oil sprays.
  3. Insecticides with a broad spectrum of activity in the chemical classes pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and neonicotinoids may be harmful to natural enemies (parasitoids and predators). Some broad-spectrum insecticides are more selective than others, and selectivity further depends on how, when, and where the insecticide is applied. Be sure to check the label for the kinds of insects controlled by the product, or contact your county extension educator for information on the use of insecticides with natural enemies.

 

Eric J. Rebek
Extension Entomologist

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