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Management of Insects and Mites in Tree Nurseries

Insect and mite pests of nursery crops present unique challenges and opportunities with respect to their management and control. Nurseries produce a wide variety of ornamental plants, ranging from trees to bedding plants, annuals to perennials, and both woody and herbaceous crops. This diversity and high density of plants requires varied and often conflicting horticultural practices, and creates an environment that supports a larger number of arthropod species than is encountered in less diverse cropping systems. Many of these arthropods are pests, kept under control by beneficial arthropods such as predators and parasitoids (i.e., natural enemies). However, natural enemies are susceptible to broad-spectrum pesticides applied during nursery production. Thus, effective alternatives to chemical control should be incorporated into production systems, reducing negative impacts on natural enemies, pollinators, and other beneficial arthropods.

 

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to managing pests that combines biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks.  Many pest populations in nurseries can be reduced by implementing and following a comprehensive IPM plan. At a minimum, such a plan should include the following:

 

  • Correct identification of arthropod pests and their associated plant damage
  • Regular monitoring and scouting for pests, documented with accurate recordkeeping
  • Inspection and, when necessary, quarantine of incoming nursery stock
  • Maintaining health and vigor of nursery stock

Pesticides can be part of a comprehensive IPM plan, but pesticide use should not substitute for good horticultural practices or be used as ‘preventative insurance’ against pests. Such practices are rarely justifiable economically, and provide a recipe for the selection and proliferation of pests that are resistant to pesticides. Overreliance on chemical control may lead to rapid resurgence of pest populations as key natural enemies are eliminated following exposure to pesticides. Pesticides should be applied using specified application methods and equipment to ensure optimal control and safety. Follow ALL label directions and adhere to Worker Protection Standards and special precautions including protection of pollinators, aquatic organisms, and other non-target species. Pesticide recommendations in this publication are current as of the “Modified Date.”

 

 Pest: Ants
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  ANTS Baits        
  Includes red imported fire ants and harvester ants. Abamectin Award II Fire Ant Bait 6 See label Baits may be applied as a broadcast or perimeter treatment around individual mounds. Apply when ants are foraging.
    Fipronil Chipco Choice or Quali-Pro Fipronil 0.0143G†  2B 24 Check registration for specific site uses. Some bait products are not registered for nurseries.
  Social insects that live in colonies. Size and color variable, depending on species. All have characteristic narrow "waist." Hydramethylnon Amdro Pro Fire Ant Killer 20A 12  
    Pyriproxyfen Distance Fire Ant Bait 7C 12  
    S-Methoprene Extinguish Professional Fire Ant Bait 7A 4  
  Ants build mounds and sometimes clear bare areas in turf. Red imported fire ants and red harvester ants can inflict a painful sting. Some people are hypersensitive to the sting. S-Methoprene + Hydramethylnon Extinguish Plus 7A + 20A 12  
    Spinosad Conserve Professional Fire Ant Bait 5 4  
 
   
Sprays and Granulars          
    Bifenthrin Talstar
or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro† 
3A 12  
  No specific treatment threshold has been established. Ants can be managed with baits or registered turf insecticide applications as mound drenches or perimeter sprays. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Cyfluthrin + Imidacloprid Discus N/G 3 + 4A 12  
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  For detailed control options of fire ants, see CR-7309: Treatment Options for Controlling Red Imported Fire Ants Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12

 

 

 

 Pest:  Aphids
  Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  APHIDS          
    Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera.
  Measure 1/8 to 1/5 inch long. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Pear-shaped, soft-bodied, sucking insects. Active all growing season. Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar
spray. Use non-ionic spreader-sticker adjuvant, but observe phytotoxicty precautions associated with surfactant.
    Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Use for suppression and adult feeding deterrence.
  Aphids secrete honeydew (sticky, sugar-like material), which may attract ants and flies and provide growing media for sooty mold. Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco 20D + 6 12 Provides suppression only.
    Bifenthrin OnyxPro 3A 12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Aphids generally attack the tender terminals and leaves. Leaves may twist and curl and become distorted. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  Small infestations can be often washed off plants with strong water pressure (stream of water). Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10–14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Provides suppression only. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 Must be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12  
    Pymetrozine Endeavor 9B 12 Has systemic activity. Prevents insects from feeding by blocking mouthparts.
    Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Use for suppression only. Does not control adults.
    Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  
    Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G  4A 12/12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

 

 Pest: Bagworms
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  BAGWORMS          
    Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Measure 1-2 inches long (bagworm case). Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4  
  Active May through September Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A 4 Insects must consume material. Most effective against young bagworms.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Common caterpillar pests on cedars, arborvitae, and sometimes feed on bald cypress, elms, pines, willows, maples, sycamores, and other trees. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cylaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
  Small infestations can be removed by hand in winter before larvae emerge in May, but be sure to destroy all bags. Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when bagworms are small and actively feeding.
    Sulfoxaflor + Spinetoram XXpire WG 4C + 5 12  

 

 Pest: Borers
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  BORERS          
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.
  Make sure label specifically lists the type of borer you are trying to control.

 

Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Pheromone traps may be used for early detection of clearwing moth adults. Chlorpyrifos Dursban 50 W 1B 24 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.
    Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  For detailed information about managing borers, see EPP-7326: Woodborers. Cylaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12 Apply to lower branches and trunk when adults begin to emerge.

 

 Pest: Boxelder Bug and Red-Shouldered Bug
  Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  BOXELDER BUG and RED-SHOULDERED BUG          
    Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
  Measure 1/2 to 1 3/4 inches long Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Feed on seeds of boxelder, golden raintree, and soapberry, but don't injure the tree. Permethrin Astroor Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
  For best results, spray in early summer when young nymphs are present.          

 

 Pest: Caterpillars
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  CATERPILLARS          
    Acephate  Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Includes cankerworms, webworms, tent caterpillars, and leafrollers/leaftiers. Acetamiprid  Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide.  Apply as a foliar spray. 
    Azadirachtin  Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4  
    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Dipel Pro DF 11A 4 Insects must consume material.  Most effective against young bagworms.
  Measure 1/2 to 2 inches long. Bifenthrin   Talstar or UP-Star SC
or Onyx Pro
3A 12/12/12  
  Active spring through fall. Carbaryl  Sevin SL Carbaryl
Insecticide
1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. 
BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Larvae feed on foliage. Some species roll and tie leaves with silk and some build webs or tents around foliage or in crotches of limbs. Cyfluthrin  Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12

 

 

    Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Diazinon  Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity.  Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important.  Avoid applying too frequently.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin  Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity.  Avoid applying at
frequent intervals.
    Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Use against armyworms only.
    Paraffinic oil  Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Permethrin  Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when larvae are small and actively feeding.

 

Pest: Elm Leaf Beetles, Willow Leaf Beetles, and Elm Calligrapha Beetles
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  ELM LEAF BEETLES, WILLOW LEAF BEETLES, and ELM CALLIGRAPHA BEETLES          
    Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Adults measure 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. Larvae measure 1/4 to 3/8 inch long. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  These leaf-feeding beetles are active late spring to late summer. Both adults and larvae feed on foliage, but larvae cause the most damage by skeletonizing the leaves. Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systematic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Effective against larvae and adults.

 

 Pest:  Japanese Beetles and May/June Beetles
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  JAPANESE BEETLES and MAY/JUNE BEETLES          
    Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 24 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray. Tank mix with an appropriate surfactant.
  Measure 1/2 to 3/4 inch long. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
  June beetles active at night April through September. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Japanese beetles active during the day late June through July. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  June beetles occasionally feed on foliage of American elm and other trees. Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Japanese beetles are serious pests, feeding on foliage, fruits, and flowers of many landscape plants. Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do no apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 3A 12/12  

 

 Pest: Lace Bugs
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  LACE BUGS          
 

 

Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Measure 1/8 inch long. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
  Tiny mottled, brown to black and grey insects with long, lace-like wings. Suck sap from underside of leaves, causing them to become mottled with grey or brown spots. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  Active spring through summer. Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Common on sycamores, elms and some oaks, pyracantha, and occasionally azaleas. Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do no apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Small infestations can be washed off plants/foliage with strong water pressure (stream of water). Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X  NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
    Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G  4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

 

Pest: Leafminers and Needleminers
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  LEAFMINERS and NEEDLEMINERS          
 

 

Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Repeat at 7-day intervals or as necessary to maintain control
  Includes blotch, serpentine, and tentiform leafminers, so named for the shape of their tunnels. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray.
    Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Foliar application for control of larvae. Use with paraffinic oil
  Larvae measure 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. Bifenazate + Abamectin Sirocco 20D + 6 12 Effective against boxwood leafminer.
  Leafminers are the tiny larvae of several moth, fly, and sawfly species that feed between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  Active spring through summer. Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2-7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Seldom cause extensive damage. Prune and burn twigs or leaves when possible. Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10-14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24 Controls adults only.
    Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Use for suppression only.
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. Use with azadirachtin.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
    Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12  
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when stippling or mining first appear. Three sequential applications at 7-day intervals can maximize control of leaf-mining flies.

 

 Pest: Mites
  Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  MITES          
  Measure 1/60 inch long. Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Do not make more than two applications per crop per year.
    Abamectin + Bifenazate  Sirocco 6 + 20D 12 Allow a minimum of 14 days between applications.
  Active spring to early fall; spider mites frequently become a per crop severe problem in hot, dry weather. Acequinocyl Shuttle O or Shuttle 15 SC  20B 12 Not effective against rust mites, broad mites, nor flat mites
    Bifenazate Floramite SC 20D 12  
  Frequently, two or more applications at 7-day intervals will be needed to reduce mite populations. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12 Apply only once per cropping cycle.
    Clofentezine Ovation SC 10A 12 Not effective against broad mites, bulb mites, cyclamen mites, flat mites, nor rust mites.
    Cyflumetofen Sultan 25 12  
  Mites can be difficult to control, thus, consider alternating chemicals at the different treatment intervals. Etoxazole TetraSan 5 WDG 10B 12 Kills all life stages, including eggs.
    Fenbutatin-oxide Vendex 50 WP 12B 48/48 Do not tank mix with paraffinic oil.
    Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Hexythiazox Hexygon DF 10A 12 Activity predominantly against eggs and immature mites.
    Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Propargite Omite 30 WS 12C 14 days Do not tank mix with petroleum-based oils.
    Pyridaben Sanmite 21A 12  
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when spider mites first appear prior to webbing.
    Spirodiclofen Envidor 2 SC 23 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only. Apply only once per season.
    Spirotetramat Kontos 23 24  

 

Pest: Pine Tip Moths
   Pests Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI**  Comments
  PINE TIP MOTHS          
  Larvae measure 1/2 inch long.         Use pheromone traps to time insecticide applications. Applications should be made 10-14 days after moth flight begins. Multiple applications are usually needed.
  Active March to September. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC  or OnyxPro 3A 12/12/12  
  Larvae bore into buds, trunk, stems, and twigs. Most species of 2- and 3-needle pines are subject to attack; however, slash, Austrian, and long-leaf pines are somewhat resistant. Infested shoots usually turn yellow and later, red and brown. Dead, hollowed-out buds and twigs are usually present. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. Treat trunk, stems, twigs and foliage.
    Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 Thorough coverage is important. Apply with a spreader surfactant. 
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 Thorough coverage is important. Apply with a spreader surfactant. 
    Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10 to 14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench.
  Females emerge and lay eggs from late March through late May. Larvae must be controlled before they bore into plant. Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC 3A 12/12  
    Pyridalyl Overture 35 WP NS 12  
  For best protection with sprays, apply at 20-day intervals from late March through the end of June. Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 Apply when young larvae first appear.
  For more information, see EPP-7645: Nantucket Pine Tip Moth.          

 

Pest: Plant Galls
  Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  PLANT GALLS          
 

 

Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Plant galls are usually a cosmetic problem and difficult to control with insecticides. Timing of application is critical. Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10 to 14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4 For use against dipterous (fly) gall midges only.
  Plant galls on branches can be removed by pruning and destroying the gall-infested material. Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G   4A 12/12 Apply during egg laying. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  For more information, see EPP-7168: Plant
Galls Caused by Insects and Mites.
         

 

 Pest: Scales and Mealybugs
 Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
SCALES and MEALYBUGS          
  Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Includes brown elm scale, euonymus scale, and longtailed mealybug.  Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray.
  Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or Onyx Pro 3A 12/12/12  
Active during growing season. Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions: BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
Soft scales and mealybugs produce honeydew while armored scales do not. Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
  Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 Only suppresses mealybugs. See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
Check label for specific scale pests; some products do not control armored scales. Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid   Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2 to 7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
Most non-systemic contact insecticides cannot penetrate protective, waxy layer of scales. Thus, apply sprays to target crawler (nymph) stage. Use double sided sticky tape to monitor crawler activity. Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10 to 14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
  Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
  Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
  Malathion Fyfanon 1B 24 For use in Christmas tree plantations only.
  Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
  Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Only works only on crawlers.
  Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G 4A 12/12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

 

 Pest: Thrips
   Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  THRIPS          
    Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera.
  Measure 1/16 inch long. Abamectin + Bifenazate Sirocco 6 + 20D 12 Provides suppression only.
  Active spring and summer. Acephate Orthene T, T&O WSP 1B 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  These tiny insects are difficult to control due to their small size and tendency to hide in flowers and under foliage. The body tapers toward the end of the abdomen and both pairs of wings are fringed with hairs.  Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray.
    Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Only controls immature stages.
    Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or Onyx Pro 3A 12/12/12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Observe phytotoxicity precautions. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Feeding causes small spots of discoloration on leaves and flowers. As feeding continues and populations increase, small spots often coalesce into large blotches. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 Suppression only. Controls thrips feeding on foliage only. See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid  Pradia 28 + 29 12 Controls thrips feeding on foliage only. See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
  Thorough coverage of sprays is important for effective thrips control. Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2 to 7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10 to 14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Novaluron Pedestal 15 12  
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Spinosad Conserve SC or Entrust SC 5 4/4  
    Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G 4A 12/12 Provides suppression only. Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

 

 Pest: Whiteflies
  Pest Pesticide Common Name Pesticide Trade Name Pesticide Class* REI** Comments
  WHITEFLIES          
  Measure 1/8 inch long.  Abamectin Avid 0.15 EC or Minx 2 6 12/12 Provides suppression only; do not use on roses, chrysanthemums, and gerbera.
    Abamectin + Bifenazate Sirocco 6 + 20D 12 Provides suppression only.
  Active summer through early fall. Acetamiprid Tristar 8.5 SL 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray.
    Azadirachtin Azatin XL or Molt-X UN 4/4 Controls immature stages only.
  Tiny insects. Adults have yellow bodies and white wings. Adults and nymphs commonly found on underside of leaves. Bifenthrin Talstar or UP-Star SC or Onyx Pro 3A 12/12/12  
    Carbaryl Sevin SL Carbaryl Insecticide 1A 12 Labeled for ash whitefly control. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
  Adults and nymphs feed on plant sap with piercing-sucking mouthparts and cause yellowing of leaves. Often "white clouds" of adults fly out of disturbed foliage. Cyclaniliprole Sarisa 28 4 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyclaniliprole + Flonicamid   Pradia 28 + 29 12 See label for use restrictions to protect pollinators.
    Cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP 3A 12  
    Diazinon Diazinon 50 W 1B 2 to 7 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Dimethoate Dimethoate 4 E 1B 10 to 14 days Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
  For effective whitefly control, ensure thorough coverage by wetting plants to dripping point. Aim for coverage of the underside of leaves and penetrate dense foliage. Repeat applications are frequently needed. Dinotefuran Safari 20 SG 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.
    Fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC 3A 24 May be tank mixed with Orthene T, T&O WSP.
    Imidacloprid Marathon II 4A 12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar the spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom. Do not apply to linden, basswood, or other Tilia spp.
    Insecticidal soap M-Pede or Kopa NS 12/12 Short residual activity. Thorough coverage of all plant parts is important. Avoid applying too frequently.
    Lambda-cyhalothrin Scimitar GC 3A 24  
    Mineral oil Ultra-Pure Oil or SuffOil-X NS 4/4 Short residual activity. Avoid applying at frequent intervals.
    Novaluron Pedestal 15 12 Active on nymphs.
    Paraffinic oil Sunspray Ultra Fine Oil NS 4 Do not apply when buds are fully open and shoots are elongating. Observe phytotoxicity precautions.
    Permethrin Astro or Perm-up 3.2 EC   3A 12/12  
    Pymetrozine Endeavor 9B 12 Has systemic activity. Prevents insects from feeding by blocking mouthparts.
    Pyridaben Sanmite 21 12 Works on nymphs and adults.
    Pyriproxyfen Distance or Fulcrum 7C 12/12 Only effective against nymphs.
     Thiamethoxam Flagship 25 WG or Flagship 0.22 G   4A  12/12 Systemic insecticide. Apply as a foliar spray or soil drench. BEE CAUTION: Do not apply to plants in bloom.

  Restricted Use Pesticide

** REI = Restricted Entry Interval (in hours, unless otherwise noted); workers not allowed to enter into treated area until the REI has elapsed.

* The numbers associated with the pesticide class column were developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, (IRAC) in 2005. It is intended to help in the selection of insecticides for preventative resistance management. If you make multiple applications for a specific pest or group of pests during a growing sequence, simply select a registered insecticide with a different number for each generation (14-21 days). You can rotate within the same number if more than one subgroup is available (Example: 2A and 2B). To further delay resistance from developing, integrate other control methods into your pest management programs.

     
  1A= Carbamates 14= Nereistoxin analogues
  1B= Organophosphates 15= Benzoylureas
  2A= Cyclodiene organochlorines 16= Buprofezin
  2B= Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) 17= Cyromazine
  3A= Pyrethroids, Pyrethrins 18= Diacylhydrazines
  3B= DDT, Methoxychlor 19= Amitraz
  4A= Neonicitinoids 20A= Hydramethylnon
  4B= Nicotine 20B= Acequinocyl
  4C= Sulfoxaflor 20C= Fluacrypyrim
  4D= Butenolides 21A= METI acaricides and insecticides
  5= Spinosyns 21B= Rotenone
  6= Avermectins, Milbemycins 22A = Indoxacarb
  7A= Juvenile hormone analogues 22B= Metaflumizone
  7B= Fenoxycarb 23= Tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives
  7C= Pyriproxyfen 24A= Phosphine
  8A= Alkyl halides 24B= Cyanides
  8B= Chloropicrin 25= Beta-ketonitrile derivatives
  8C= Sulfuryl fluoride (fumigant) 26= (unassigned)
  8D= Borax 27= (unassigned)
  8E= Tartar emetic 28= Diamides
  8F= Methyl isothiocyanate generators UN= Unknown mode of action
  9B= Pymetrozine NS= Non-specified, multi-site
  9C= Flonicamid  
  10A= Clofentezine, Hexythiazox, Diflovidazin  
  10B= Etoxazole  
  11A= Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce  
  11B= Bacillus sphaericus  
  12A= Diafenthiuron  
  12B= Organotin miticide  
  12C= Propargite  
  12D= Tetradifon  
  13= Chlorfenapyr, DNOC, Sulfluramid  

 

Notes:

  1. Before purchasing and using any pesticide, read the label carefully for registered use(s), rates, and application frequency. Also note toxicity category on the label of each pesticide since toxicity ratings may affect reentry intervals and note any ventilation requirements. Wear protective clothing as recommended on each pesticide label.
  2. When using horticultural oils it is important to not use oils with insecticidal soap or any sulfur containing compounds. Also, do not use horticultural oils in sprayers in which fungicides have been used. Frequent agitation is required when using horticultural oil sprays.
  3. Insecticides with a broad spectrum of activity in the chemical classes pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and neonicotinoids may be harmful to natural enemies (parasitoids and predators). Some broad-spectrum insecticides are more selective than others, and selectivity further depends on how, when, and where the insecticide is applied. Be sure to check the label for the kinds of insects controlled by the product, or contact your county extension educator for information on the use of insecticides with natural enemies.

 

Eric J. Rebek
Extension Entomologist

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