Skip to main content

Fall Forage Production and First Hollow Stem Date for Wheat Varieties During the 2021-2022 Crop Year

Introduction

Fall forage production potential is one of the major considerations in deciding which variety to plant. Dual-purpose wheat producers, for example, may find varietal characteristics such as grain yield after grazing and disease resistance to be more important selection criteria than an advantage in early forage production potential. Forage-only producers might place more importance on planting an awnless wheat variety or one that germinates readily in hot soil conditions. Ultimately though, fall forage production is a selection criterion that should be considered. For more information on variety characteristics, please refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2142 Wheat Variety Comparison Chart.


Fall forage production potential is determined by genetics, management and environmental factors. The purpose of this publication is to quantify some of the genetic differences in wheat forage production potential and grazing duration among the most popular varieties grown in Oklahoma. Management factors such as planting date, seeding rate and soil fertility are very influential and are sometimes more important than variety selection in determining forage production. Environmental factors such as rainfall amount and distribution and temperature also play a heavy role in dictating how much fall forage is produced. All of these factors along with yield potential after grazing and the individual producer’s preferences will determine which variety is best suited for a particular field.

 

Site Descriptions and Methods

The objective of the fall forage variety trials is to give producers an indication of the fall forage production ability of wheat varieties commonly grown throughout the state of Oklahoma. The forage trials were conducted under the umbrella of the Oklahoma State University Small Grains Variety Performance Tests. During the 2021-2022 crop year, the forage trials were conducted at the Chickasha and Stillwater test sites. Additionally, first hollow stem measurements were collected at both sites. Weather data for each location are provided in Figures 1 and 2.


A randomized complete block design with four replications was used at each site. Plots at each location were established in a conventionally tilled seedbed. At planting, 5 gal/acre of 10-34-0 was applied in seed furrow at Stillwater and Chickasha. The seeding rate at both locations was 120 lbs/acre. Forage was measured by hand clipping two, 1-m by 1-row samples approximately ½ inch above the soil surface from the interior rows within each plot. There was only one forage sampling date at each location. All samples were placed in a forced-air dryer after collection for approximately seven days and weighed. Fertility, planting date and clipping date information is provided in Table 1.

 

First hollow stem sampling began in early February at the Stillwater and Chickasha locations. It continued every three to four days on a by-variety basis until all varieties reached first hollow stem. Plant samples were collected for each variety by digging an approximately eight-inch section of row and selecting ten plants randomly from this sample. The largest tiller on each plant was split longitudinally, and the hollow stem below the developing grain head was measured. Varieties were considered to be at first hollow stem when the average measurement of the ten plant samples was 1.5 cm (5/8 inch) or greater. For more information on first hollow stem, refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2147 First Hollow Stem: A Critical Wheat Growth Stage for Dual-Purpose Producers.

 

Figure 1. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2021 to March 30, 2022, at Stillwater, OK. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

A graph of the average daily temperature and rainfall in Stillwater, OK.

 

Figure 2. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2021 to March 30, 2022, at Chickasha, OK. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

A graph of the average daily temperatures and rainfall in Chickasha, OK.

 

Results

As indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the 2021-2022 fall forage production season included moderate temperatures and low rainfall that was conducive to moderate fall forage production in our fields. Our results reflect these conditions in the sites evaluated. The average fall forage production at Stillwater was 2,775 lbs/acre, and values ranged from 1,777 to 3,277 lbs/acre (Table 2). Average forage production at Chickasha was 1,762 lbs/acre and values ranged from 1,385 to 2,340 lbs/acre (Table 3).


First hollow stem data are reported in ‘day of year’ (day) format for the winter wheat varieties in Table 4. To provide a reference, keep in mind that March 1 is day 60. The winter was warmer than usual, and March of 2022 was characterized by warmer and drier than the average. These conditions likely resulted in plant development and the onset of first hollow stem as expected for our region. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date at Stillwater was day 48 (February 18). This was 13 days earlier than 2021 (March 4), similar to 2020 (February 19), and 2 days earlier than the 20-year average (March 6). There was a 32-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties at Stillwater compared to a 48-day difference in 2021 and 23-day difference in 2020. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date for the Chickasha location was 66 (March 7). This was 7 days earlier than 2021 (March 13), 17 days later than 2020 (February 18), and similar to the 20-year average (March 6). There was a 36-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties at this location, compared to a 45-day difference in 2021 and 28-day difference in 2020.

 

Acknowledgments

The authors want to thank the Oklahoma Wheat Commission and the Oklahoma Wheat Research Foundation for providing partial funding for this research.

 

Seed Sources and Abbreviations

  • AgriMAXX = AgriMAXX Wheat
  • AgriPro = AgriPro|Syngenta Seeds
  • AGSECO = AGSECO Inc.
  • CROPLAN = CROPLAN by WinField United
  • KWA = Kansas Wheat Alliance
  • LCS = Limagrain Cereal Seeds
  • OGI = Oklahoma Genetics Inc.
  • OSU = Oklahoma State University
  • PlainsGold = PlainsGold Seeds
  • WestBred = WestBred Wheat

 

 

Table 1. Location, planting, clipping and soil information.

   Planting date Sampling date  pH N STP STK
Chickasha 9/28/21 12/1/21 6.8 69 42 309
Stillwater 9/27/21 11/29/21 5.6 45 77 258

Notes:
   STP: soil test P index;
   STK: soil test K index
                        

        

Table 2. Fall forage production for the winter wheat varieties at Stillwater, OK during the 2021-2022 production year.      

Licensee Variety 2021-2022 2-Year 3-Year
    ----------lbs dry forage/acre-----------
OGI Duster 3,277 2,845 2,852
Westbred WB4401 3,185  3,258 -
OGI Baker's Ann 3,121 2,872 2,905
OGI OK Corral 3,073 2,743 2,975
Syngenta SY Achieve CL2 3,063 3,081 2,889
Westbred WB4792 3,056 2,915 2,840
OGI Smith's Gold 3,051 3,153 3,123
Plainsgold Canvas 3,011 2,691 2,617
OGI Big Country 2,988 2,854 2,827
Plainsgold Sunshine 2,978 - -
Plainsgold Guardian 2,976 2,904 2,751
Westbred WB4422 2,971 - -
OGI Green Hammer 2,967 2,818 2,628
OGI Bentley 2,931 3,487 3,371
OGI Strad CL+ 2,916 2,976 3,413
KWA KS Ahearn 2,909 2.946 -
KWA KS Western Star 2,896 2,583 2,718
Westbred WB4699 2882 2,811 2,372 -
OGI Iba 2,871 2,939 2,716
OGI Breakthrough 2,863 2,610 -
OGI Gallagher 2,862 2,809 2,862
Syngenta AP18 AX 2,861 2,917 -
Syngenta AP Prolific 2,854 - -
LCS LCS Photon AX 2,820 3,041 3,078
Syngenta AP EverRock 2,793 2,814 2,788
AgriMAXX AM Cartwright 2,762 2,771 2,750
OGI Doublestop CL+ 2,761 - -
Westbred WB4523 2,742 - -
Syngenta AP Roadrunner 2,717 2,631 -
AGSECO AG Radical 2,698 3,018 -
OGI Uncharted 2,690 2,728 2,861
OGI Showdown 2,667 2,803 2,679
AGSECO AG Icon 2,643 2,535 2,591
Croplan CP7017AX 2,628 2,824 -
Plainsgold Crescent AX 2,560 2,800 2,674
Plainsgold Breck 2,527 - -
Croplan CP72166AX 2,526 - -
LCS LCS Atomic AX 2,516 2,946 -
LCS LCS Chrome 2,504 2,692 2,979
LCS LCS Julep 2,484 2,262 -
KWA KS Hamilton 2,458 2,730 -
LCS LCS Helix AX 2,445 2,397 -
LCS LCS Steel AX 2,430 - -
LCS LCS Valiant 2,339 2,405 -
AGSECO AG Golden 2,077 - -
LCS LCS Runner 1,777 - -
Experimentals Lines        
  OK15DMASBx7 ARS 6-8 3,002 2,954 -
  OK15DMASBx7 ARS 8-29 2,947 2,953 -
  KS13DH0041-35 2,896 - -
Mean   2,775 2,822 2,836
LSD (0.05)   525 327 409

Notes: Bolded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column.

 

Table 3. Fall forage production for the winter wheat varieties at Chickasha, OK during the 2021-2022 production year.   

Licensee Variety 2021-2022 2-Year 3-Year
    --------lbs dry forage/acre ---------  
KWA KS Ahearn 2340 - -
OGI Green Hammer 2006 2551 2923
LCS LCS Chrome 1961 2162 2714
OGI Gallagher 1951 2418 2623
OGI Showdown 1903 2325 2648
Plainsgold Crescent AX 1891 - -
Syngenta AP Roadrunner 1866 - -
OGI OK Corral 1862 2308 2618
Westbred WB4401 1841 2170 -
OGI Smith's Gold 1814 2381 2675
Plainsgold Canvas 1785 - -
Westbred WB4699 1759 - -
OGI Big Country 1747 1959 2259
Croplan CP7017AX 1701 - -
LCS LCS Photon AX 1665 2180 -
AGSECO AG Icon 1664 2287 2522
Sygenta AP18 AX 1637 - -
AgriMAXX AM Cartwright 1631 - -
LCS LCS Atomic AX 1615 - -
AGSECO AG Radical 1555 - -
OGI Doublestop CL+ 1499 2265 2510
OGI Uncharted 1438 1959 2133
OGI Strad CL+ 1385 2030 2372
Mean   1762 2230 2545
LSD (0.05)   NS NS 372

Notes: Bolded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column.

NS: no statistical differences were detected among varieties within a column.

 

Table 4. Occurrence of first hollow stem (day of year) for the winter wheat varieties sown in 2021 and measured in 2022 at Stillwater and Chickasha, OK.

Licensee Variety Stillwater Chickasha
    ---- day of year ----
OGI Gallagher 39 69 
OGI Green Hammer 39 66
OGI Big Country 39 73 
Westbred WB4401 39 46 
Syngenta SY Achieve CL2 39
Syngenta AP Roadrunner 39 52 
AGSECO AG Radical 39 60 
OGI Iba 42
OGI Baker's Ann 42
OGI OK Corral 42 66 
Westbred WB4792 42
Westbred WB4422 42
Westbred WB4523 42
Syngenta AP18 AX 42 66 
LCS LCS Steel AX 42
AGSECO AG Icon 42 73 
OGI Butler's Gold 42
OGI Duster 45
OGI Smith's Gold 45 69 
OGI Strad CL+ 45 69 
OGI Bentley 45
Syngenta AP EverRock 45
LCS LCS Atomic AX 45 66 
PlainsGold Crescent AX 45 52 
OGI Uncharted 49 69 
OGI Showdown 49 77 
OGI Breakthrough 49
Syngenta AP Prolific 49
KWA KS Western Star 49
KWA KS Ahearn 49 66 
LCS LCS Chrome 49 69 
AGSECO AG Golden 49
AgriMAXX AM Cartwright 49 60 
PlainsGold Canvas 49 60 
PlainsGold Guardian 49
Croplan CP7017AX 49 62 
LCS LCS Photon AX 52 66 
LCS LCS Valiant 52
Croplan CP72166AX 52
KWA KS Hamilton 60
LCS LCS Helix AX 60
LCS LCS Julep 60
LCS LCS Runner 60
PlainsGold Breck 60
Westbred WB4699 66 77 
PlainsGold Sunshine 66
OGI Doublestop CL+ 69 80 
OSU Experimentals       
  KS13DH0041-35 45 -
  OK15DMASBx7 ARS 6-8 49 -
  OK15DMASBx7 ARS 8-29 49 -
  Average 48 66

 

Was this information helpful?
YESNO
Fact Sheet
Propagation of Ornamental Plants for Oklahoma

This circular discusses propagation techniques for different types plants.

CropsGardening & Lawn CareOrnamentalsShrubsTrees
Fact Sheet
2021-2022 Small Grains Variety Performance Tests

Wheat variety performance test by various testing methods and data interpretation.

CropsGrains & OilseedsGreenhouse CropsHarvesting & Storage of GrainsWheat
Fact Sheet
Perennial Flowers for Specific Uses in Oklahoma

Benefits of perennial flowers in various fields. Any plant that blooms and survives for more than two years is a perennial.

CropsFlowersGardening & Lawn CareTrees
Fact Sheet
Mejorando la fertilidad del suelo del huerto

Diferentes suelos tienen diferentes necesidades; por lo tanto, comience a comprender cómo los fertilizantes afectan su jardín y sus deseos individuales.

Composting, Fertilizing, & MulchingCropsGardening & Lawn CareOrganic & SustainableSoilSoil Health & FertilitySoil Testing
VIEW ALL
Back To Top
MENUCLOSE