Tobacco Ringspot Decline and Yellow Vein Disease
Tobacco Ringspot Virus (TRSV) and Tomato Ringspot Virus (ToRSV)
The host range of tomato ringspot virus includes common bean, cowpea, cucumber, grape, peach, potato, raspberry, strawberry, tobacco and tomato. Tobacco ringspot hosts include blueberry, common bean, cowpea, cucumber, grape, soybean and tobacco.
Tobacco Ringspot Virus (TRSV) causes symptoms that are similar to Tomato Ringspot Virus (ToRSV). Both diseases can lead to general grapevine decline. ToRSV is also known as yellow vein and tomato ringspot disease or decline. Symptoms of both viruses include yellow line patterns and flecks on affected leaves. Leaves may appear smaller than normal and the internodes may be abnormally shortened. The diseases cause reduced vine vigor and shoot stunting. Infected plants are highly susceptible to cold damage and may yield small clusters of grapes. Symptoms can resemble those caused by other viruses.
The viruses are transmitted by dagger nematodes. The diseases are more common in vineyards in the Eastern United States although in recent surveys, they have been found in a nearby state. The viruses are often moved with infected propagation material.
Growers should plant certified, disease-free plants. Pruning tools should be disinfected with a bleach solution (1 part household bleach, 9 parts water) between cuts. Infected plants should be removed and discarded. Prior to replanting with susceptible hosts, a soil-test to determine the presence of plant pathogenic nematodes (which may harbor and spread the virus) should be performed.