Fields, meadows, gardens and near buildings. Nests are free hanging and consist of
a single layer of cells constructed out of wood and saliva with openings at the bottom.
In spring several females construct a nest together. One of the females becomes the
dominant queen and starts laying eggs. The first generation consists of females only
which were cared for as larvae by unmated females. In late summer males emerge from
unfertilized eggs and mate. Only mated young females overwinter under leaf litter
and in stone walls.
13-25 mm in length; body mostly reddish brown to black with yellow rings and reddish
areas on abdomen; wings reddish or amber brown.
Please contact your local county extension office for current information.