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Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops

Weeds compete with crop plants for water, light, space and plant nutrients. Land preparation, cover crops, mulches and other management practices can be used to control many of these weeds. Herbicides are available that can be used effectively in a weed control program; however, no single herbicide controls all weeds. Herbicides should not be depended upon as the only resource for weed control, but should be part of an integrated pest management program.

 

Land Preparation

 With all small fruit crops, soil should be deep and well drained. Land preparation should begin, and soil samples should be taken, the year before crop establishment. All perennial weeds such as Johnsongrass, bermudagrass and wild blackberries should be killed one year before crop planting. Systemic herbicides such as glyphosate are effective in control of these weeds, but application needs to be made while the plants are actively growing. Two or more herbicide applications may be required for total control, especially on wild blackberries. After the weeds have been killed, any needed lime and fertilizer applications can be tilled into the soil. These operations should be completed no later than the fall season before the crops are to be planted.

 

Cover Crops

 After soil operations have been completed, the soil should be planted with a cover crop. The soil should never be bare during the winter, and a partial cover crop can be maintained throughout the year with the woody small fruit crops (blueberries, brambles and grapes). Cover crops will reduce rainfall runoff, control erosion, reduce soil temperatures, add organic matter to the soil and improve soil tilth and root penetration. Cover crops will also provide some control of annual and perennial weeds. A low-growing, mowable cover such as ryegrass or fescue can be maintained between the rows of woody plants throughout the year. This will provide a clean, firm surface for field operations and for customers in pick-your-own operations.


Some commonly used cover crops are fescue, annual ryegrass, rye, wheat and oats. Fescue is a perennial and does not need to be established annually. It has a bunch-type growth habit preventing it from creeping into unwanted areas. The cereal grains will provide a quick soil cover, and substantial amounts of organic matter, but will need to be replanted each year. Legumes such as clover and vetch will add nitrogen to the Crop soil, but are more difficult to establish and provide little growth during cold weather. All the species mentioned here are best seeded in the early fall so they can become established before freezing weather begins. If they are planted in September or early October, complete soil cover should be obtained before winter. If they are planted in late October or early November, some growth will occur before winter, but much of the soil will remain unprotected throughout the winter. In either case, substantial growth should occur during March and April of the following year. Depending on the crop and the cultural management system used, the cover crop can be killed with a herbicide, mowed or allowed to grow until maturity.


Another possible cover crop is naturally occurring annual vegetation on the site. Native plants may be left between rows of woody small fruit crops, but should not be allowed to grow into the rows. These natural cover plants should be kept mowed to about four inches in height throughout their growing season.


Tillage between the rows is often desirable during strawberry renovation. This eliminates weeds between the rows, including extra strawberry runners. Tillage is normally not effective on perennial grasses, as regrowth from their root segments can occur following tillage. Tillage can be used to control annual weeds, but cultivation should be very shallow to reduce the possibility of damaging crop roots.


Tillage of other small fruit crops is not recommended. Some crops, such as blueberries and grapes, are shallow rooted, and any tillage near the plant may damage the roots. With blackberries or raspberries, tillage that cuts the berry roots may initiate new shoot development from the severed root segments. This may result in abundant, unwanted cane development, which can be difficult to manage. Often, mulches may be the best solution for weed control within woody crop rows, while cover crops or native plants are used between rows.

 

Mulches

 Mulches used for weed control include straw, sawdust, wood or bark chips, plastic sheeting, woven plastic and other materials. The mulch is placed around the crop plants thickly enough to shade out emerging weeds. Many mulches also provide a physical barrier to weed emergence. Mulches are undesirable for matted-row strawberry production because they prevent the rooting of daughter plants.

 

Straw is inexpensive, but only moderately effective for weed control. It provides little physical resistance to weeds,and may blow away. Weed seeds may even be brought in with the straw. Straw mulch usually only lasts a few months before it must be replenished.

 

Sawdust is relatively inexpensive and, when applied thickly enough (four to six inches deep), provides good weed control. Wood chips and bark mulches are usually more expensive, but work just as well as sawdust. All these materials have a disadvantage because they tie up nitrogen in which they come into contact. However, the nitrogen is released after woody material decays. Woody mulches usually need to be replenished yearly, depending on how rapidly they decay under local conditions and how much fertilizer is applied to them. If the fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation system, less of the nitrogen comes into contact with the mulch, causing less mulch decay and allowing more fertilizer to reach the crop plant immediately.

 

Plastic mulches may be either solid sheets or woven material. Solid sheet plastic comes in several colors, but black and white are the most common. Black plastic is usually used in small fruit production because it is readily available and less expensive than other colors. It also can help warm root systems during the spring, and may cause earlier budding of the crop. However, sheet plastics are not very durable and will usually last only one growing season or less, unless they are covered by another mulch (straw or a wood product) to prevent sun and wind from damaging them. If they are used with another mulch, they provide excellent weed control in most situations, although some perennial weeds may penetrate these mulches. Sheet plastic covered with a wood mulch may still need to be replaced in a year or two. Considerably less woody mulch is needed for this system than if only woody mulch is used. Sheet plastics are difficult to install in existing plantings.

 

Woven plastic mulches have high initial costs, but may last up to ten years if they are protected from the sun by a woody mulch or straw. They provide excellent barriers to weed penetration, but should not be used in brambles because they must renew their canes from the roots each year. This process could be inhibited by the woven mulch. The long-term cost of these mulches may be very attractive if they are used in blueberries or grapes.

 

Other Management Practices

 Other management practices, including fertilization, irrigation and sanitation affect weed growth. Weeds will be less of a problem if fertilizers are applied in mulched rows or through a drip irrigation system rather than broadcast throughout the field. Drip irrigation systems, which deliver water only to crop rows provide less opportunity for weed growth between rows. Sanitation of field equipment, such as hosing off equipment and tires when moving from a weedy field to another field, can help prevent the spread of weed seeds.

 

Herbicides

 Some weed problems may not be adequately controlled by the methods discussed above, or conditions may be such that these methods are undesirable. In these situations, herbicide use is a viable alternative.

 

The number of herbicides registered for weed control on small fruits is limited. If the registered herbicides available are used correctly, they can be very beneficial. Each herbicide is used differently and for a specific purpose; therefore, it is very important to know what the herbicide will do, when to use it and how to properly apply it.

 

The suggestions contained herein are based on the assumptions that the crop plants are healthy and proper procedures for soil preparation have been followed. Plants weakened by improper management may be susceptible to herbicide injury that would not have occurred on healthy, vigorous plants.

 

Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to the use and application of herbicides are frequently revised. Always check on the status of label clearances for herbicides before use. Labels on the container give information on application restrictions, common rates, timing, directions for use and other facts that will allow for the most efficient use of these herbicides. Remember the label is the law. Always apply herbicides as the label instructs. This protects consumers, growers, the environment and the health of the planting.

 

Principles in Using Herbicides

 The following basic principles are important in using herbicides for weed control:

 

  1. Identify the weed before choosing the herbicide. The susceptibility of weeds to different herbicides varies with the weed species. For help with weed identification, contact your local county Extension educator.
  2. Read the label for registration approval, precautions, limitations and directions for use. The rate varies with crop, target weed, soil type, etc. Only use a herbicide that has been registered for use on the specific crop to be grown. Call your county Extension educator or chemical supplier for help in determining proper rates of application.
  3. If the herbicide is new, try it on a small area the first time. Even though research has shown the herbicide to be effective, field use by growers on small areas is suggested before the herbicide is used on a large acreage. This gives the grower a chance to learn how to properly use the herbicide and to determine if there are any adverse effects from use of the chemical.
  4. Time of application is very important in herbicide usage. Check the label to determine when the herbicide should be used in relation to crop growth, fruiting and weed growth.
  5. Calibrating the sprayer annually is necessary to apply the herbicide accurately and at a uniform rate. Care should be used to apply the herbicide so drift is minimized.

 

Preemergence Herbicides

 Preemergence herbicides are applied to the soil surface and must be activated by rainfall. They must be applied to a weed-free soil before the weed seeds germinate or be applied with a postemergence herbicide that kills existing weeds. When the preemergence herbicides are activated by rainfall, they are taken up from the soil and kill weed seeds as they germinate.

 

Preemergence herbicide rates are based on soil type. Clay soils or soils high in organic matter require more herbicide to control weeds than sandy soils. Labels usually specify the appropriate rate for each soil type. Do not exceed the rate specified on the label or plants may be injured. Some herbicides cannot be used on sandy soils, so be sure to consult the label before applying these chemicals.

 

No one preemergence herbicide will control all weed species, as each herbicide differs in the species it will control. Complete reliance on only one material year after year will result in a buildup of the weeds resistant to that material. It is important to rotate herbicides from application to application to avoid this weed buildup, and to prevent herbicide accumulation in the soil. Rotate herbicides with different mode of action numbers to help prevent developing resistances.

 

Two preemergence herbicides are often applied as a tank mix to broaden the range of weed species controlled. In general, any herbicide may be legally used in a tank mix, as long as the timing, rates, soil conditions, etc., do not violate the label instructions for each of the materials in the tank mix. However, the user assumes all risks associated with tank mixes not specifically mentioned on the labels for the materials in the mix.

 

Postemergence Herbicides

 Postemergence herbicides are effective after the weeds have germinated and started to grow. The chemical must contact the leaf of the target plant.

 

There are two basic types of postemergent herbicides – systemic and contact. Systemic herbicides like glyphosate (RoundUp) are applied to weed foliage and are translocated throughout the plant. It is necessary for the weeds to be growing at the time of application for effective control. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the spray solution improves effect on perennial grasses. If the herbicide inadvertently gets to the cambium layer of the crop plant, it will translocate and injure it. Some systemic herbicides only affect broadleaf weeds and others only grasses. 2,4-D formulations are available for post-emergence control of broadleaf weeds. Extreme care should be exercised to avoid damage to the small fruit plants. Follow label directions carefully.

 

Poast® and Fusilade® are translocated postemergence grass herbicides. Like glyphosate, they will kill roots as well as top growth. In many respects they can be considered ‘reverse 2,4-D’ since they will kill grasses but leave broadleaved plants unharmed.

 

Contact herbicides such as paraquat work best when applied at relatively high temperatures and in large gallonage per acre so that good coverage of the weeds is obtained. A non-ionic surfactant should be added to get maximum results. It is important not to allow the spray to contact green stems, fruit or foliage of the fruit plants. Paraquat kills by contact and should be used on small weeds for best results. It kills the top growth, but does not affect the roots, so repeat applications on perennial weeds are required for season-long control.

 

Tank Mixes

The preemergence herbicides in a tank mix may be used each at full rate, but many growers get good control by using 1/2 to 3/4 of the recommended rate of each. While this can reduce costs, the user assumes all risks for reduction in weed control from reducing application rates. Combining preemergent herbicides targeting grasses with another preemergent broadleaf herbicide is a popular tank mix.

 

Additional References


HLA-6005 Mulching garden soils


CR-6252 Commercial grape insect & disease control


CR-6221 Commercial blackberry, strawberry & blueberry insect & disease control


HLA-6222 Home fruit planting guide


EPP-7450 Safe use of pesticides in the home and garden

 

  Weeds Application Time of Herbicide MOA Crop
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Preemergence Alion (indaziflam) 29 Grapes, Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Callisto (mesotrione); Other names: Explorer, Mesotrione 4SC 27 Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Casoron CS (dichlobenil) 20 Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Casoron CS (dichlobenil) 20 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) 15 Strawberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) 15 Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) 15 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Karmex 80 DF (diuron); Other names: Diuron, Cleanshot 7 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Matrix FVN or SG (rimsulfuron): Other names: Solida, Grapple, Pruvin, Rimsulfuron 250F, Rimgro 2 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Princep 4L (simazine); Other names: Simazine, Sim-trol 5 Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Princep 4L (simazine); Other names: Simazine, Sim-trol 5 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Sinbar WDG (terbacil) 5 Strawberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Sinbar WDG (terbacil) 5 Brambles
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Sinbar WDG (terbacil) 5 Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Solicam DF (norflurazon) 12 Brambles
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Solicam DF (norflurazon) 12 Blueberries
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Solicam DF (norflurazon) 12 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Surflan AS (oryzalin); Other names: Fugitive, Oryzalin 4 3 Brambles

 

  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Surflan AS (oryzalin); Other names: Fugitive, Oryzalin 4 3 Blueberries, Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Treflan HFP 4EC (trifluralin); Other names: Trifluralin, Trust 3 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds At transplanting or PPI and Fall and Early Spring for Established Dacthal 6F (DCPA) 3 Strawberries
  Annual broadleaf weeds & suppression of grass Preemergence Chateau SW (flumioxazin); Other names: Tuscany 14 Strawberries
  Annual broadleaf weeds & suppression of grass Preemergence Chateau SW (flumioxazin); Other names: Tuscany 14 Grapes
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds & yellow nutsedge Preemergence Velpar 2L (hexazinone); Other names: Tide Hexar 2SL Velossa 5 Blueberries
  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds Preemergence Prowl H20 3.8E (penimethalin); Other names: Satellite Hydrocap, Aquapen3.8, Pin-dee 3.3 Pendipro, Stealth 3 Strawberries

 

  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds Preemergence Prowl H20 3.8E (penimethalin); Other names: Satellite Hydrocap, Aquapen3.8, Pin-dee 3.3 Pendipro, Stealth 3 Grapes
  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Snapshot 2.5TG (isoxaben+trifluralin) 3, 21 Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes
  Annual broadleaf weeds Preemergence Gallery 75DF (isoxaben) 21 Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes
  Annual broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen); Other names: Goaltender, Galigan, Collide 14 Strawberries

 

  Annual broadleaf weeds  Preemergence Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen); Other names: Goaltender, Galigan, Collide 14 Grapes
  Winter annual & perennial grass & broadleaf weeds Preemergence, Postemergence Kerbr (pronamide) 3 Blueberries

 

  Winter annual & perennial grass & broadleaf weeds Preemergence, Postemergence Kerbr (pronamide) 3 Grapes
  Annual grasses & broadleaves Postemergence, directed spray Ultra Blazer 2E (acifluorfen); Other names: Avalanche Ultra, Levity, Uproar   Strawberries
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat 22 Strawberries
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat 22 Brambles, Blueberries
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat 22 Grapes
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence, directed spray Rely 280 (glufosinate); Other names:Glufosinate 280L Total, Intensive, Surmise, Cheetah, Lifeline, Reckon 280L, Refer 280SL

10

 

 

Blueberries
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence, directed spray Rely 280 (glufosinate); Other names:Glufosinate 280L Total, Intensive, Surmise, Cheetah, Lifeline, Reckon 280L, Refer 280SL  10 Grapes
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Postemergence, directed spray Scythe 4.2E (pelargonic acid)

27

Strawberries, Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes
  Annuals & perennial weeds Postemergence

 

 

Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more 9 Strawberries
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Postemergence directed spray  Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more   Brambles, Blueberries
  Annuals & perennial weeds Postemergence directed spray Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more 9 Grapes
  Annuals & perennial weeds Postemergence  Fusilade DX (fluazifop-p)  1 Strawberries, Brambles, Blueberries
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Postemergence   Fusilade DX (fluazifop-p)  1  Grapes
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Postemergence  Poast (sethoxydim)  1  Strawberries
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Postemergence   Poast (sethoxydim)  1  Brambles
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Postemergence   Poast (sethoxydim)  1 Blueberries 
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Postemergence   Poast (sethoxydim)  1 Grapes 
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Postemergence  Select Max (clethodim); Other names: Arrow 2EC  1  Strawberries
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Postemergence  Select Max (clethodim); Other names: Arrow 2EC 1 Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes
  Broadleaf weeds Postemergence Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) 14 Strawberries
  Broadleaf weeds Postemergence Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) 14 Brambles
  Broadleaf weeds Postemergence Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) 14 Blueberries
  Broadleaf weeds Postemergence Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) 14 Grapes
  Broadleaf weeds Postemergence Reglone 2L (diquat); Other names: Aceto Diquat 2L, Nufarm Diquat 2L, Rowrunner AG 22 Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes
  Weeds Time of Herbicide Crop Comments
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Alion (indaziflam) Grapes, Brambles, Blueberries Age Restriction: must be established a minimum of 3 years for grapes and 1 year for berries and growing vigorously. Only apply to grapes that have at least 6 inches between soil line and majority of root system. Avoid direct or indirect spray contact with crop foliage, green bark, roots, or fruit. Allow at least 90 days between applications. Do not apply within 25 feet of ponds, rivers, streams, or wetlands. Spot spraying is not allowed.
PHI= 14 days.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Callisto (mesotrione); Other names: Explorer, Mesotrione 4SC Brambles, Blueberries Apply pre-or early post-emergence. For improved post-emergence control, apply 3.0 fl oz followed 3 weeks later by a second application at same rate. Apply prior to bloom. Include a crop oil concentrate if applied post-emergence to weeds.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Casoron CS (dichlobenil) Brambles, Blueberries

 

 

 

Age Restriction: Do not apply to new plantings less than one year old. Apply in early spring before weeds germinate or after cultivation and incorporate thoroughly. Do not apply during crop shoot emergence.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Casoron CS (dichlobenil) Grapes Age Restriction: Use only on well-established vines, 1 year after transplanting. Apply late fall through early spring. Use prior to weed emergence or not later than when < 2 inches tall.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) Strawberries Do not apply from bloom to harvest. Soil must be wetted to a depth of 2 to 4 inches after application. Refer to label for application instructions that differ with planting type.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) Brambles, Blueberries Apply in the fall or early spring prior to weed emergence. Moisture needed for activation. For new and established plantings.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Devrinol 50DF (napropamide) Grapes Apply in the fall or early spring prior to weed emergence. Incorporate into soil by shallow cultivation or irrigation within 24 hours of application. Rainfall or irrigation is necessary for activation. May be applied to new planted vines. Do not apply within 35 days of harvest.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Karmex 80 DF (diuron); Other names: Diuron, Cleanshot Grapes Age Restriction: Apply only in vineyards established 3 or more years as band treatment to grape rows. Apply in spring prior to weed seed germination. Proper rates depend on soil texture.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Matrix FVN or SG (rimsulfuron): Other names: Solida, Grapple, Pruvin, Rimsulfuron 250F, Rimgro Grapes Age Restriction: Do not apply to vines established less than one year. Apply as banded application to base of vines. Soil should be moist at time of application and rainfall or irrigation follows. Pre-harvest interval is 14 days.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Princep 4L (simazine); Other names: Simazine, Sim-trol Brambles, Blueberries Apply in the early spring before bud break, or as a split application in the fall and spring. Do not apply during fruiting. Use ½ rate on plantings established less than 6 months.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Princep 4L (simazine); Other names: Simazine, Sim-trol Grapes Age Restriction: Plants must be established at least 3 years. Apply between harvest and early spring before weeds emerge. Proper rate depends on soil texture.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Sinbar WDG (terbacil) Strawberries

 

Do not apply within 110 days of harvest. Rate depends on soil texture. Runner production and plant stand may be reduced. Varieties vary in sensitivity.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Sinbar WDG (terbacil) Brambles Age Restriction: Treat bushes established one year or more. Rate depends on soil texture. Do not apply within 70 days of harvest. Crop injury may result from use on low organic matter soils.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Sinbar WDG (terbacil) Blueberries Age Restriction: Treat bushes established one year or more. Rate depends on soil texture. Crop injury may result from use on low organic matter soils. Avoid contact of foliage and fruit. Apply in spring or after harvest before weeds emerge or early seedling stage.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Solicam DF (norflurazon) Brambles

 

 

Age Restriction: Do not use on plants less than 18 months old. Apply fall to early spring while crop is dormant and before weed emergence begins. Raspberries are sensitive. Rate depends on soil texture. PHI=60 days. Temporary loss of pigment in leaf veins may occur with normal use.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Solicam DF (norflurazon) Blueberries Age Restriction: Do not use within 6 months establishment. Apply from fall to early spring of before weeds emerge. Rate depends on soil texture. PHI=60 days.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Solicam DF (norflurazon) Grapes Age Restriction: Not within 2 years of establishment. Apply fall to early spring before weed emergence. Use lower rates on coarse soils. Rate depends on soil type. Do not use on sandy or gravelly soils. Do not use within 60 days of harvest.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Surflan AS (oryzalin); Other names: Fugitive, Oryzalin 4 Brambles

 

Irrigation or rainfall of ½ to 1 inch is needed to move the herbicide into the weed germination zone. Minimum 2.5 months between applications.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Surflan AS (oryzalin); Other names: Fugitive, Oryzalin 4 Blueberries, Grapes Surface apply after existing weeds are killed by tillage or contact herbicide. One-half inch to 1 inch of rain or irrigation is required to move the herbicide into the weed germination zone. Duration of weed control is dependent on rate of application.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Treflan HFP 4EC (trifluralin); Other names: Trifluralin, Trust Grapes Apply and incorporate prior to planting, or any time within 60 days before harvest. Rate depends on soil texture and amount of rainfall. PHI=60 days.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds Dacthal 6F (DCPA) Strawberries Do not apply after 1st bloom through harvest.
  Annual broadleaf weeds & suppression of grass Chateau SW (flumioxazin); Other names: Tuscany Strawberries

 

Preplant -Apply at least 30 days before transplanting. Do not apply to frozen ground. Can apply while plants are dormant on established or newly planted with shielded sprayer to row middles. Do not apply after fruit set and not over strawberries.
  Annual broadleaf weeds & suppression of grass Chateau SW (flumioxazin); Other names: Tuscany Grapes Age Restriction: Must be established 2 years unless trellised at least 3 ft from soil surface or are protected by non porous wrap, grow tubes, or waxed containers. Apply after harvest until bud break. Apply alone or tank mix with Roundup or Gramoxone. Do not incorporate. Do not allow drift to contact foliage or green bark. Always add crop oil or surfactant. PHI=60 days.
  Annual grass & broadleaf weeds & yellow nutsedge Velpar 2L (hexazinone); Other names: Tide Hexar 2SL Velossa Blueberries Age Restriction: Use on plantings established at least 3 years. Apply to pruned blueberries in the spring before leaf emergence as a directed soil application. Some clones are susceptible to injury. PHI=90 days.
  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds Prowl H20 3.8E (penimethalin); Other names: Satellite Hydrocap, Aquapen3.8, Pin-dee 3.3 Pendipro, Stealth Strawberries

 

Apply as broadcast spray before transplanting. PHI=35 days. Rainfall or irrigation after application will have best results. 3 pt/app, and 6 pt/season. Soil type determines application rates.
  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds Prowl H20 3.8E (penimethalin); Other names: Satellite Hydrocap, Aquapen3.8, Pin-dee 3.3 Pendipro, Stealth Grapes On newly planted to 1 yr old, apply to dormant grapevines. In bearing vineyards, may be applied any time after fall harvest, during winter dormancy and in spring. In non-bearing vineyards, may be applied preplant incorporated, preplant surface or preemergence. Needs rain or irrigation within 21 days. Do not allow spray to contact leaves, shoots, or buds. For new plantings, do not apply until soil has settled and no cracks are present. PHI=90 days
  Annual grass & certain broadleaf weeds Snapshot 2.5TG (isoxaben+trifluralin) Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within 1 year of application. Not effective on germinated weeds.
  Annual broadleaf weeds Gallery 75DF (isoxaben) Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within 1 year of application. Apply later summer to early spring. Do not apply to new plantings before soil near the plants has settled. Rate depends on weed species.
  Annual broadleaf weeds Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen); Other names: Goaltender, Galigan, Collide Strawberries

 

Fallow bed preparation only: Apply alone or with Roundup a minimum of 30 days before transplanting. Fallow bed should be worked thoroughly to a depth of 2.5 in prior to planting.
  Annual broadleaf weeds Goal 2XL (oxyfluorfen); Other names: Goaltender, Galigan, Collide Grapes Age Restriction: Do not apply to vines established for less than 3 years unless vines are on a trellis at least 3 ft above the soil surface. Apply in early spring when grapevines are dormant, before buds start to swell. Vines must be staked or trellised prior to application. Rate varies with application timing - see label.
  Winter annual & perennial grass & broadleaf weeds Kerbr (pronamide) Blueberries

 

Dormant Application Only: Apply in late fall or early winter under cool temperatures above freezing. Do not apply until blueberry roots are well established. Follow with irrigation.
  Winter annual & perennial grass & broadleaf weeds Kerbr (pronamide) Grapes Age Restriction: Do not apply to vines less than 1 year old or within 6 months of spring transplanting or within 1 year of fall transplanting. Apply in late fall after the fruit is harvested but prior to leaf drop and soil freeze up.
  Annual grasses & broadleaves Ultra Blazer 2E (acifluorfen); Other names: Avalanche Ultra, Levity, Uproar Strawberries Max of 1.5 pt/acre , 3 pt per acre per season. Annual strawberries PHI=60 days; Matted row PHI=120 days (perennial). Nonionic surfactant or crop oil.
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat Strawberries

 

 

 

 

 

Apply between plant rows using shields to prevent spray contact with strawberry plants. Apply when weeds are actively growing and perennials Other names: are between 1 and 6 inches tall. Do not apply more than 3 times per year or within 21 days of harvest. Always use nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate. Restricted Use Pesticide.
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat Brambles, Blueberries Apply before emergence of new canes or shoots to avoid injury. Apply as coarse directed spray to thoroughly wet weeds and avoid drift injury. Max 5 app/yr. Always use a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate. Restricted Use Pesticide
  Annual Grass and Broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Gramoxoner 2L (paraquat); Other names: Bonedry, Cyclone sL, Firestorm, Devour, Paraquat 3SL, Parazone 3SL, Quik-quat Grapes Apply as a coarse directed spray to thoroughly wet weeds and avoid drift injury. Treat when sucker growth is no more than 8 inches long. Avoid contact with desirable foliage. Max of 5 app/yr. Always use a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate. Restricted Use Pesticide.
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Rely 280 (glufosinate); Other names:Glufosinate 280L Total, Intensive, Surmise, Cheetah, Lifeline, Reckon 280L, Refer 280SL Blueberries Do not allow spray to contact desirable foliage. Do not exceed 3 lb ai/year. PHI=14 days.
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Rely 280 (glufosinate); Other names:Glufosinate 280L Total, Intensive, Surmise, Cheetah, Lifeline, Reckon 280L, Refer 280SL Grapes Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Directed spray. Can be used for sucker control on mature vines - see label.
  Annual grass and broadleaf weeds, suppression of perennials Scythe 4.2E (pelargonic acid) Strawberries, Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes Non selective, contact activity. Controls emerged green vegetation. Avoid contact with leaves or canes.
  Annuals & perennial weeds Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more Strawberries

 

 

 

Apply as pre-plant broadcast application or in fall for control of roots and rhizomes of perennial weeds or as a directed spray or wiper application to actively growing weeds in established plantings. PHI=14 days.
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more Brambles, Blueberries

 

 Do not use within 14 days of harvest. Apply directed spray as a directed spray or spot treat before and more budbreak. Avoid contact with canes and foliage.
  Annuals & perennial weeds Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC (glyphosate); Other names: Showdown, Envy, Duramax, Durango, and more Grapes Apply as directed spray in established vineyards or for site preparation prior to transplanting. Do not treat within 14 days of harvest or when green vegetation, canes, or shoots are in spray zone. Rate varies depending on weed species and height. Do not allow spray or drift to contact immature wood or foliage.
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Fusilade DX (fluazifop-p)  Strawberries, Brambles, Blueberries Non-bearing only: May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within 1 year of application. Apply as a directed spray to actively growing grasses before tillering. Always add crop oil or nonionic surfactant. Avoid contact with foliage. Strawberry PHI=14 days, Bramble & Blueberry PHI=1 day
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Fusilade DX (fluazifop-p)  Grapes Apply as directed spray with appropriate crop oil, surfactant, or adjuvant. Growth stage and rates of application vary with location in state. Consult label. PHI is 50 days after application
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Poast (sethoxydim)  Strawberries Apply to actively growing grasses. Do not apply within 7 days of strawberry harvest. Maximum 2.5 pt app and 2.5 pt per season. Always use a crop oil concentrate.
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Poast (sethoxydim)  Brambles Do not apply within 45 days of harvest. Rate depends on grass species and height. Always use a crop oil concentrate.
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Poast (sethoxydim) Blueberries  Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Apply as a directed spray. Two applications usually necessary to control perennial grasses. Always use crop oil concentrate.
  Annuals & perennial weeds   Poast (sethoxydim) Grapes  Do not apply to crops to be harvested within 50 days of application. Apply to annual grasses up to 12 inches in height. Rate depends on grass species and height. Always use a crop oil concentrate.
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Select Max (clethodim); Other names: Arrow 2EC  Strawberries Apply as a directed spray to actively growing grasses before tillering. Always add crop oil. Rainfast in 1 hour. 14 days between applications PHI=4 days.
  Annuals & perennial weeds  Select Max (clethodim); Other names: Arrow 2EC Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes Do not spray directly on crop plants. Direct spray at the base of the plant near ground. Always use a non-ionic surfactant. Blueberry PHI=14 days; Bramble PHI=7 days; Grapes - non-bearing only.
  Broadleaf weeds Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) Strawberries Apply with hooded shields between rows during growing season to actively growing weeds. Always add nonionic surfactant or crop oil. Max 6.1 fl oz per year. Minimum 14 days between applications. PHI=0 days.
  Broadleaf weeds Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) Brambles Apply with hooded shields between rows during growing season to actively growing weeds. Do not allow contact with green stem, fruit, bloom or foliage. Always add nonionic surfactant or crop oil. Minimum 14 days between applications. PHI=15 days.
  Broadleaf weeds Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) Blueberries Apply broadcast at base of trunks during dormant stage or with hooded shields between rows during growing season. Do not allow contact with green stem, fruit, bloom or foliage. Always add nonionic surfactant or crop oil. PHI=0 day.
  Broadleaf weeds Aim 2EC or 2EW (carfentrazone) Grapes Age Restriction: Do not apply to newly transplanted vines. Apply broadcast at base of trunks during dormant stage or with hooded shields between rows during growing season. Always add nonionic surfactant or crop oil. Tank mix with Roundup or Gramoxone for broader weed control. PHI=3 days.
  Broadleaf weeds Reglone 2L (diquat); Other names: Aceto Diquat 2L, Nufarm Diquat 2L, Rowrunner AG Brambles, Blueberries, Grapes Non-bearing only. May only be used on crops that will not be harvested within 1 year. Apply as directed spray using a shield for contact burn of weeds. Always use a nonionic surfactant. Can be used during site preparation. Do not allow contact with green stems, foliage, or fruits.

 

The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of printing. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions. The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.

 

Oklahoma State University, as an equal opportunity employer, complies with all applicable federal and state laws regarding non-discrimination and affirmative action. Oklahoma State University is committed to a policy of equal opportunity for all individuals and does not discriminate based on race, religion, age, sex, color, national origin, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, disability, or veteran status with regard to employment, educational programs and activities, and/or admissions. For more information, visit https://eeo.okstate.edu.

 

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director of Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. This publication is printed and issued by Oklahoma State University as authorized by the Vice President for Agricultural Programs and has been prepared and distributed at a cost of 20 cents per copy. Rev. 0219 GH

 

 

Becky Carroll
Associate Extension Specialist, Fruit and Pecans

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