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Fall Forage Production and First Hollow Stem Date for Wheat Varieties During the 2019-2020 Crop Year

Introduction

Fall forage production potential is one of the major considerations in deciding which variety to plant. Dual-purpose wheat producers, for example, may find varietal characteristics such as grain yield after grazing and disease resistance to be more important selection criteria than an advantage in early forage production potential. Forage-only producers might place more importance on planting an awnless wheat variety or one that germinates readily in hot soil conditions. Ultimately though, fall forage production is a selection criterion that should be considered.  For more information on variety characteristics, please refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2142 Wheat Variety Comparison Chart.

 

Fall forage production potential is determined by genetics, management and environmental factors. The purpose of this publication is to quantify some of the genetic differences in wheat forage production potential and grazing duration among the most popular varieties grown in Oklahoma. Management factors such as planting date, seeding rate and soil fertility are very influential and sometimes more important than variety selection in determining forage production. Environmental factors, such as rainfall amount and distribution and temperature, also play a heavy role in dictating how much fall forage is produced. All of these factors, along with yield potential after grazing and the individual producer’s preferences, will determine which variety is best suited for a particular field.

 

Site Descriptions and Methods

The objective of the fall forage variety trials is to give producers an indication of the fall forage production ability of wheat varieties commonly grown throughout the state of Oklahoma. The forage trials were conducted under the umbrella of the Oklahoma State University Small Grains Variety Performance Tests. During the 2019-2020 crop year, the forage trials were conducted at the Chickasha and Stillwater test sites. Additionally, first hollow stem measurements were collected at both sites. Weather data for each location are provided in Figures 1 and 2.

 

A randomized complete block design with four replications was used at each site. Plots at each location were established in a conventionally tilled seedbed. At planting, 50 pounds per acre of 18-46-0 was applied in seed furrow in Stillwater and 5 gallons per acre of 10-34-0 was applied in seed furrow in Chickasha. The seeding rate at both locations was 120 pounds per acre. Forage was measured by hand clipping two, 1-meter by 1-row samples approximately ½ inch above the soil surface from the interior rows within each plot. There was only one forage sampling date at each location. All samples were placed in a forced-air dryer after collection for approximately seven days and weighed. Fertility, planting date and clipping date information is provided in Table 1.

 

First hollow stem sampling began early February at the Stillwater and Chickasha locations and continued every three to four days on a by-variety basis until varieties reached first hollow stem. Plant samples were collected for each variety by digging an approximate 8-inch section of row and selecting 10 plants randomly from this sample. The largest tiller on each plant was split longitudinally, and the hollow stem below the developing grain head was measured. Varieties were considered to be at first hollow stem when the average measurement of the ten plant samples was 5/8 inch (1.5 cm) or greater. For more information on first hollow stem, refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2147 First Hollow Stem: A Critical Wheat Growth Stage for Dual-Purpose Producers.

 

Results

As indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the 2019-2020 fall forage production season included moderate temperatures and good rainfall that were conducive to fall forage production in the field, and the results reflect these favorable conditions in the sites evaluated. Average fall forage production at Stillwater was 2,880 pounds per acre and values ranged from 1,493 to 4285 pounds per acre (Table 2). Average forage production at Chickasha was 2,943 pounds per acre and values ranged from 2,099 to 3,819 pounds per acre (Table 3).

 

Figure 1. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2019 to March 25, 2019 at Stillwater, OK.

Figure 1. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2019 to March 25, 2020 at Stillwater, OK. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

 

 

Figure 2. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2019 to March 25, 2020 at Chickasha, OK.

Figure 2. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from September 1, 2019 to March 25, 2020 at Chickasha, OK. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

 

First hollow stem data are reported in ‘day of year’ (day) format for the winter wheat varieties in Table 4. To provide reference, keep in mind that March 1 is day 60. February and March 2020 were characterized by slightly warmer-than-normal temperatures and good moisture. These conditions likely resulted in plant development and onset of first hollow stem occurring earlier than normally expected for our region. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date at Stillwater was day 49 (February 19). This was almost one month earlier than 2019 (March 15), 25 days earlier than 2018 (March 11), and 16 days earlier than the 20-year average (March 6). At Stillwater, there was a 23-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties, compared to a 28-day difference in 2019 and 20-day difference in 2018. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date for the Chickasha location was 48 (February 18), which was 13 days earlier than in 2019, 17 days earlier than in 2018 and 24 days earlier than the 20-year average (March 6). At this location, there was a 28-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties, compared to a 27-day difference in 2019 and a 25-day difference in 2018.

 

Acknowledgments

The authors want to thank the Oklahoma Wheat Commission and the Oklahoma Wheat Research Foundation for providing partial funding for this research.

 

Seed Sources and Abbreviations

  • AgriMAXX = AgriMAXX Wheat
  • AgriPro = AgriPro|Syngenta Seeds
  • AGSECO = AGSECO Inc.
  • CROPLAN = CROPLAN by WinField United
  • KWA = Kansas Wheat Alliance
  • LCS = Limagrain Cereal Seeds
  • OGI = Oklahoma Genetics Inc.
  • OSU = Oklahoma State University
  • PlainsGold = PlainsGold Seeds
  • WestBred = WestBred Wheat

 

 

Table 1. Location, planting, clipping and soil information.

   Planting date Sampling date  pH N STP STK
   Chickasha 9/19/19 12/19/2019 6.3 65 57 32
Stillwater 9/18/2019 12/13/2019 6.3 154 76  407

Notes:
   STP: soil test P index;
   STK: soil test K index
                        

        

Table 2. Fall forage production for the winter wheat varieties at Stillwater, OK during the 2019-2020 production year.                   

Licensee Variety  2-Year   3-Year 
WestBred WB4269 3,281 2,640
OGI Lonerider 3,223  --- 
KWA Zenda 3,004 2,617
CROPLAN CP7909 2,938  --- 
Limagrain LCS Chrome 2,868 2,501
PlainsGold Langin 2,946 2,437
OGI OK Corral  ---   --- 
KWA KS Silverado  ---   --- 
AgriPro Bob Dole 2,900 2,546
Limagrain LCS Photon AX  ---   --- 
OGI Bentley 2,749 2,285
AgriPro SY Benefit 2,533  --- 
OGI Smith's Gold 2,591 2,236
KWA KS Western Star  ---   --- 
CROPLAN CP7010  ---   --- 
OGI Baker's Ann 2,373  --- 
OGI Gallagher 2,841 2,264
KWA KS Dallas  ---   --- 
OGI Duster 2,959 2,444
WestBred WB4515 2,633 2,298
OGI Ruby Lee 2,706 2,167
OGI Spirit Rider 2,582 2,230
Limagrain T173  ---   --- 
AgriPro AP EverRock  ---   --- 
WestBred WB4595 2,479  --- 
CROPLAN CP7869 2,462  --- 
AgriMaxx AM Cartwright 2,485  --- 
AGSECO AG Icon 2,500 2,221
WestBred WB4792 2,454  --- 
AgriMaxx AM Eastwood 2,304  --- 
AgriPro SY Achieve CL2 2,538  --- 
OGI Skydance  ---   --- 
AGSECO TAM 114 2,487 2,082
PlainsGold Canvas 2,328  --- 
PlainsGold Guardian  ---   --- 
OGI Showdown 2,143 1,961
PlainsGold Crescent AX 2,390  --- 
OGI Iba 2,403 1,968
OGI Green Hammer 2,164 2,024
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 2,318 1,973
AgriPro SY Rugged 2,122  --- 
WestBred WB4699 1,873  --- 
       
OSU Experimentals       ---   ---   
  OK12912C-138407-2  ---   --- 
  OK16D101089 2,457  --- 
  OCW04S717T-6W 2,468  --- 
  OK15MASBx7 ARS 8-1  ---   --- 
  OK16729W 2,259  --- 
       
Average   2,565 2,272
LSD (0.05)   630 NS

 Notes:
Shaded and bolded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column.
NS = not significant.

 

 

Table 3. Fall forage production for the winter wheat varieties at Chickasha, OK during the 2019-2020 production year.    

 lbs dry forage/acre
Licensee Variety 2019-2020  2-Year   3-Year 
Limagrain LCS Chrome 3,819 3,588 2,963
OGI Green Hammer 3,665 3,511  ---
OGI Bentley 3,315 3,576 3,080
OGI Showdown 3,293 3,430 2,881
OGI Smith's Gold 3,262 3,342 2,872
OGI OK Corral 3,240  ---  ---
OGI Ruby Lee 3,240 3,611 3,121
WestBred WB4699 3,116  ---  ---
OGI Skydance 3,097  ---  ---
WestBred WB4595 3,088  ---  ---
OGI Gallagher 3,032 3,593 3,099
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 3,002 3,263 2,672
AGSECO AG Icon 2,991 3,115  ---
KWA Zenda 2,753  ---  ---
AgriPro Bob Dole 2,719  ---  ---
WestBred WB4792 2,706  ---  ---
WestBred WB4269 2,660 3,051 2,812
OGI Baker's Ann 2,537  ---  ---
AgriPro SY Rugged 2,482 2,796 2,434
Limagrain T173 2,319  ---  ---
OGI Duster 2,099 2,964 2,651
         
OSU Experimentals        
  OK12912C-138407-2 3,056  ---  ---
  OK16729W 3,007  ---  ---
  OCW04S717T-6W 2,859 3,032  ---
  OK188608 2,827  ---  ---
  OK15MASBx7 ARS 8-1 2,804  ---  ---
  OK16D101089 2,482 2,669  ---
         
Average   2,943 3,253 2,859
LSD (0.05)   483 475 NS

 Notes:
   Shaded
and bolded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within
a column.
  NS = not significant.

 

 

 

Table 3. Fall forage production for the winter wheat varieties at Chickasha, OK during the 2019-2020 production year.

 lbs dry forage/acre
Licensee Variety 2019-2020  3-Year 
Limagrain LCS Chrome 3,819 2,963
OGI Green Hammer 3,665  ---
OGI Bentley 3,315 3,080
OGI Showdown 3,293 2,881
OGI Smith's Gold 3,262 2,872
OGI OK Corral 3,240  ---
OGI Ruby Lee 3,240 3,121
WestBred WB4699 3,116  ---
OGI Skydance 3,097  ---
WestBred WB4595 3,088  ---
OGI Gallagher 3,032 3,099
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 3,002 2,672
AGSECO AG Icon 2,991  ---
KWA Zenda 2,753  ---
AgriPro Bob Dole 2,719  ---
WestBred WB4792 2,706  ---
WestBred WB4269 2,660 2,812
OGI Baker's Ann 2,537  ---
AgriPro SY Rugged 2,482 2,434
Limagrain T173 2,319  ---
OGI Duster 2,099 2,651
       
OSU Experimentals      
  OK12912C-138407-2 3,056  ---
  OK16729W 3,007  ---
  OCW04S717T-6W 2,859  ---
  OK188608 2,827  ---
  OK15MASBx7 ARS 8-1 2,804  ---
  OK16D101089 2,482  ---
       
Average   2,943 2,859
LSD (0.05)   483 NS

Notes: Shaded and bolded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column. NS = not significant.

           

 

 

 Table 4. Occurrence of first hollow stem (day of year) for the winter wheat varieties sown in 2019 and measured in 2020 at Stillwater and Chickasha, OK.

 

 day of year
Licensee Variety Stillwater Chickasha
KWA Zenda 34 33
AgriPro SY Benefit 34  ---
OGI Smith's Gold 34 47
OGI Skydance 34 33
AgriPro Bob Dole 44 43
OGI Baker's Ann 44 47
OGI Gallagher 44 43
AgriPro SY Achieve CL2 44  ---
PlainsGold Crescent AX 44  ---
OGI Iba 44  ---
WestBred WB4269 48 47
PlainsGold Langin 48  ---
Limagrain LCS Photon AX 48  ---
KWA KS Dallas 48  ---
OGI Duster 48 54
OGI Ruby Lee 48 47
AgriPro AP EverRock  48  ---
WestBred WB4595 48 47
AgriMaxx AM Cartwright 48  ---
WestBred WB4792 48 50
AgriMaxx AM Eastwood 48  ---
AGSECO TAM 114 48  ---
PlainsGold Guardian 48  ---
OGI Showdown 48 47
OGI Green Hammer 48 33
AgriPro SY Rugged 48 54
WestBred WB4699 48 50
OGI OK Corral 51 50
KWA KS Silverado 51  ---
OGI Bentley 51 50
KWA KS Western Star 51  ---
CROPLAN CP7010 51  ---
WestBred WB4515 51  ---
AGSECO AG Icon 51 54
PlainsGold Canvas 51  ---
OGI Lonerider 54  ---
CROPLAN CP7909 54  ---
Limagrain LCS Chrome 54 58
OGI Spirit Rider 54  ---
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 54 61
Limagrain T173 57 54
CROPLAN CP7869 57  ---
       
OSU Experimentals      
  OK12912C-138407-2 48 50
  OK15MASBx7 ARS 8-1 48 47
  OK16729W 48 50
  OCW04S717T-6W 48 47
  OK16D101089 48 43
       
Average   49 48

 

 

Amanda de Oliveira Silva
   Small Grains Extension Specialist

 

Robert Calhoun

   Senior Agriculturalist

 

Cade Miller

   Undergraduate Student

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