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Fall forage production and first hollow stem date in small grain varieties during the 2018-2019 crop year

Introduction

 Fall forage production potential is one of the major considerations in deciding which variety to plant. Dual-purpose wheat producers, for example, may find varietal characteristics such as grain yield after grazing and disease resistance to be a more important selection criteria than an advantage in early forage production potential. Forage-only producers might place more importance on planting an awnless wheat variety or one that germinates readily in hot soil conditions. Ultimately though, fall forage production is a selection criterion that should be considered. For more information on variety characteristics, please refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2142 Wheat Variety Comparison Chart.

 

Fall forage production potential is determined by genetics, management and environmental factors. The purpose of this publication is to quantify some of the genetic differences in forage production potential and grazing duration among the most popular small grain varieties grown in Oklahoma. Management factors such as planting date, seeding rate and soil fertility are very influential and are sometimes more important than variety selection in determining forage production. Environmental factors such as rainfall amount and distribution and temperature also play a heavy role in dictating how much fall forage is produced. All of these factors along with yield potential after grazing and the individual producer’s preferences will determine which variety is best suited for a particular field.

 

Site descriptions and methods

The objective of fall forage variety trials is to give producers an indication of the fall forage production ability of small grain varieties commonly grown throughout the state of Oklahoma. The forage trials were conducted under the umbrella of the Oklahoma State University Small Grains Variety Performance Tests. During the 2018-2019 crop year, the forage trials were conducted at the Chickasha and Stillwater test sites. Additionally, first hollow stem measurements were collected at both sites. Weather data for each location are provided in Figures 1 and 2.

 

Figure 1. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from Sept. 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 at Stillwater.

 

Figure 1. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from Sept. 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 at Stillwater. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

 
 

Figure 2. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from Sept. 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 at Chickasha. Figure 2. Average daily temperature (line graph) and rainfall (bar chart) from Sept. 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 at Chickasha. Weather data courtesy Oklahoma Mesonet.

 

A randomized complete block design with four replications was used at each site. Plots at each location were established in a conventionally-tilled seedbed and received 50 pounds per acre of 18-46-0 in furrow at planting. The seeding rate for each small grain at both locations was 120 pounds per acre for wheat, triticale and rye; 96 pounds per acre for barley; and 65 pounds per acre for oat. Forage was measured by hand clipping two, 1-meter by 1-row samples approximately ½ inch above the soil surface from the interior rows within each plot. There was only one forage sampling date at each location. All samples were placed in a forced-air dryer after collection for approximately seven days and weighed. Fertility, planting date and clipping date information is provided in Table 1.

 

Table1  Location, planting, clipping, and soil information

Location Planting date Clipping dates pH N STP STK
Chickasha 9/19/2018 12/5/2018 7.7 113 53 307
Stillwater 9/14/2018 12/17/2018 5.9 119 36 239

 

 

First hollow stem sampling began mid-February at the Stillwater and Chickasha locations and continued every three to four days on a by-variety basis until varieties reached first hollow stem. Plant samples were collected for each variety by digging an approximately 8-inch section of row and selecting ten plants randomly from this sample. The largest tiller on each plant was split longitudinally, and the hollow stem below the developing grain head was measured. Varieties were considered to be at first hollow stem when the average measurement of the ten plant samples was 1.5 centimeter or greater. For more information on first hollow stem, refer to OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2147 First Hollow Stem: A Critical Wheat Growth Stage for Dual-Purpose Producers.

 

Results

As indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the 2018-2019 fall forage production season included moderate temperatures and plentiful rainfall that were conducive to fall forage production by small grains, and our results reflect these favorable conditions. Average wheat fall forage production at Stillwater was 2,260 pounds per acre and yields ranged from 1,710 to 3,050 pounds per acre. Average wheat forage yield at Chickasha was 3,450 pounds per acre and yields ranged from 2,850 to 4,150 pounds per acre. Average total fall forage production for the triticale, rye, barley and oat varieties at Chickasha was 3,170; 3,140; 3,250 and 2,320 pounds per acre, respectively (Table 4).

 

CR-2141 Table 2  Fall forage yields for winter wheat varieties at Stillwater during the 2018-2019 production year.

Licensee Variety 2018-19 2-Year 3-Year
      -------------lbs dry forage/acre--------------
OGI Duster 3,050 2,230 2,390
OGI Gallagher 2,720 1,910 2,180
WestBred WB4303 2,670 1,970 2,300
OGI Ruby Lee 2,610 1,900 1,930
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 2,570 1,930 2,340
AgriPro SY Achieve CL2 2,570 2,090 -
KWA KS Venada 2,560 - -
OGI Iba 2,540 1,910 2,180
AgriPro Bob Dole 2,520 2,180 2,540
OGI Lonerider 2,510 2,000 -
CROPLAN CP7826 2,490 1,900 -
AGSECO TAM 114 2,490 1,880 2,050
AgriPro SY Rugged 2,430 1,990 -
WestBred WB4515 2,420 2,020 2,260
OGI NF 101 2,380 2,000 2,260
KWA Zenda 2,370 2,110 2,340
OGI Bentley 2,360 1,860 2,000
PlainsGold Crescent AX 2,360 - -
OGI Spirit Rider 2,360 1,990 2,180
PlainsGold Langin 2,350 1,880 2,340
LCS LCH15ACC7-7 2,320 - -
WestBred WB4269 2,320 1,840 2,230
KWA Joe 2,300 1,770 2,250
AgriPro SY Flint 2,300 1,920 2,110
AGSECO AG Icon 2,290 1,920 2,030
WestBred WB4418 2,290 - -
KWA KS080093K-18 2,260 - -
AgriPro SY Grit 2,250 1,790 2,100
WestBred WB4699 2,250 - -
CROPLAN CP7909 2,240 - -
AgriPro SY Monument 2,230 2,010 2,480
WestBred WB-Grainfield 2,230 1,810 2,080
WestBred WB4792 2,220 - -
Watley TAM 204 2,210 1,820 2,010
OGI Stardust 2,200 1,740 1,870
WestBred WB4595 2,200 - -
PlainsGold Canvas 2,190 - -
CROPLAN CP7869 2,190 - -
LCS LCS Pistol 2,190 1,820 2,290
LCS LCS Chrome 2,180 1,980 2,370
OGI Smith's Gold 2,120 1,850 2,220
AgriPro SY Razor 2,120 - -
AgriMAXX AM Eastwood 2,090 1,850 -
OGI Green Hammer 2,080 1,910 2,210
AgriPro SY Benefit 1,990 1,690 -
Dyna-Gro Long Branch 1,930 1,670 2,180
Watley TAM 112 1,930 - -
KWA Larry 1,910 1,750 1,970
OGI Showdown 1,860 1,730 2,250
OGI Baker's Ann 1,770 1,850 -
AGSECO AG Gallant 1,710 1,510 -

OSU Experimentals

       
  OK14P212 2,290 1,970 -
  OCW04S717T-6W 2,160 1,820 -
  OK14P736W 1,950 - -
  OK16729W 1,940 - -
  OK149132C 1,820 - -
  OK16D101089 1,780 - -
         
 Average   2,260 1,890 2,200
 LSD (0.05)   340 NS NS

Notes: Shaded values are not statistically different from the highestyielding variety within a column. NS = not significant.

 

CR-2141 Table 3   Fall forage yields for winter wheat varieties at Chickasha during the 2018-2019 production year.  

Licensee Variety 2018-2019 2-Year 3-Year
    ----------- lbs dry forage/acre-----------
OGI Gallagher 4,150 3,130 3,490
OGI Ruby Lee 3,980 3,060 3,330
CROPLAN CP7826 3,970 - -
OGI Bentley 3,840 2,960 3,240
OGI Duster 3,830 2,930 3,540
Dyna-Gro Long Branch 3,710 2,830 3,150
OGI NF 101 3,660 2,880 3,240
AgriMAXX AM Eastwood 3,580 - -
Watley TAM 204 3,580 2,710 3,280
OGI Showdown 3,570 2,680 3,140
AgriPro SY Flint 3,530 2,870 3,290
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 3,520 2,510 3,040
WestBred WB4269 3,440 2,890 3,230
OGI Smith's Gold 3,420 2,680 3,080
OGI Green Hammer 3,360 - -
LCS LCS Chrome 3,360 2,530 3,120
WestBred WB4303 3,320 2,610 3,250
AGSECO AG Icon 3,240 - -
OGI Iba 3,150 2,440 2,930
AgriPro SY Grit 3,130 2,570 3,140
AgriPro SY Rugged 3,110 2,410 -
AgriPro SY Razor 3,080 - -
WestBred WB4515 2,850 2,300 2,770
OSU Experimentals        
  OCW04S717T-6W 3,200 - -
  OK149132C 3,150 - -
  OK16D101089 2,860 - -
Average   3,450 2,720 3,190
LSD (0.05)   300 360  NS

Notes: Shaded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column. NS = not significant.

 

CR-2141 Table 4  Fall forage yields by triticale, rye, barley and oat varieties at Stillwater and Chickasha during the 2018-2019 production year.

      Stillwater Chickasha
Crop Source Variety 2018-2019 2018-2019 2-Year
      -------lbs dry forage/acre-------
Triticale AGSECO AG 135 2,050 3,230 -
  OGI NF 201 1,940 3,370 2,890
  TriCal TriCal 131 1,760 3,220 2,590
  TriCal TriCal 718 1,460 3,020 -
  TriCal TriCal 813 1,600 3,050 2,450
  TriCal TriCal Merlin Max 1,710 3,420 -
  TriCal TriCal Surge 2,070 3,290 -
  TriCal TriCal Exp 30412 1,790 2,720 -
  TriCal TriCal Exp 08TF01 1,290 3,180 -
    Average 1,740 3,170 2,640
    LSD (0.05) 300 360 NS
           
Rye OSU Elbon 1,460 3,050 2,720
  OSU Maton 1,510 3,060 2,800
  OSU Oklon 1,720 3,310 2,910
    Average 1,560 3,140 2,810
    LSD (0.05) NS NS NS
           
Barley OSU Eve 1,450 3,050 -
  OSU Post 90 1,600 3,440 2,760
    Average 1,530 3,250 2,760
    LSD (0.05) NS 370  
           
Oat OGI NF 402 1,680 2,440 1,790
  OSU OKAY 2,290 2,190 1,540
           
Average     1,990 2,320 1,670
LSD(0.05)     640† NS NS

Notes: Shaded values are not statistically different from the highest-yielding variety within a column for each crop. NS = not significant.
† P-value = 0.0542

 

CR-2141 Table 5   Occurrence of first hollow stem (day of year - March 1 = day 60) for winter wheat varieties sown in 2018 and measured in 2019 at Stillwater and Chickasha.

Licensee Variety Stillwater Chickasha
    -------day of year------- 
AgriMAXX AM Eastwood 59 46
AgriPro SY Achieve CL2 59 -
AgriPro SY Benefit 60 -
PlainsGold Crescent AX 66 -
LCS LCH15ACC7-7 66 -
OGI Skydance 66 -
OGI NF 101 67 48
AgriPro SY Razor 67 46
Watley TAM 112 67 -
OGI Baker's Ann 68 -
PlainsGold Langin 68 -
AGSECO TAM 114 68 -
KWA Zenda 68 -
AgriPro Bob Dole 70 -
WestBred WB4303 70 52
OGI Stardust 71 -
Watley TAM 204 72 54
WestBred WB4418 72 -
OGI Gallagher 73 46
AGSECO AG Gallant 74 -
OGI Green Hammer 74 56
WestBred WB4792 74 -
OGI Bentley 75 70
OGI Showdown 75 75
OGI Smith's Gold 75 65
AgriPro SY Rugged 75 54
WestBred WB4699 75 -
OGI Ruby Lee 76 50
WestBred WB4269 76 66
WestBred WB4595 76 -
KWA Larry 78 -
Dyna-Gro Long Branch 78 66
PlainsGold Canvas 79 -
CROPLAN CP7909 79 -
OGI Iba 79 53
LCS LCS Pistol 79 -
AgriPro SY Flint 79 66
AGSECO AG Icon 80 69
CROPLAN CP7869 80 -
OGI Doublestop CL Plus 80 71
OGI Duster 80 52
KWA KS Venada 80 -
KWA KS080093K-18 80 -
OGI Lonerider 80 -
OGI Spirit Rider 80 -
AgriPro SY Grit 80 69
AgriPro SY Monument 80 -
WestBred WB4515 80 55
WestBred WB-Grainfield 80 -
CROPLAN CP7826 82 73
KWA Joe 82 -
LCS LCS Chrome 87 68
OSU Experimentals      
  OCW04S717T-6W 68 72
  OK15MASBx7 8-1 68 -
  OK16729W 68 -
  OK16D101089 68 72
  OK168512 75 -
  OK149132C 79 69
  OK14P212 79 -
  OK14P736W 80 -
Average   74 61

 

 

CR-2141 Table 6  Occurrence of first hollow stem (day of year - March 1 = day 60) for triticale, rye, barley and oat varieties sown in 2018 and measured in 2019 at Chickasha.

Crop Licensee Variety Chickasha
      ---day of year---
Triticale TriCal TriCal Surge 35
  TriCal TriCal Exp 30412 35
  OGI NF 201 38
  TriCal TriCal Merlin Max 38
  AGSECO AG 135 42
  TriCal TriCal 131 43
  TriCal TriCal Exp 08TF01 52
  TriCal TriCal 813 57
  TriCal TriCal 718 66
    Average 45
       
Rye OSU Maton 49
  OSU Oklon 51
  OSU Elbon 65
    Average 55
       
Barley OSU Eve 45
  OSU Post 90 66
    Average 56
       
Oat† OSU OKAY 69
  OGI NF 402 72
    Average 71

 † Deer feeding resulted in a delay in the onset of FHS. 

 

First hollow stem data are reported in ‘day of year’ (day) format for the winter wheat varieties in Table 5 and the triticale, rye, barley and oat varieties in Table 6. To provide reference, keep in mind that March 1 is day 60. February and March of 2019 were characterized by cooler-than-normal temperatures and resulted in slower plant development and onset of first hollow stem than normally expected for our region. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date at Stillwater was day 74 (March 15). This was four days later than in 2018 and eight days later than the previous 20-year average at this location. At Stillwater, there was a 28-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties, compared to a 20-day difference in 2018 and a nine-day difference in 2017. The average winter wheat first hollow stem date for the Chickasha location was 61 (March 2), which was three days earlier than in 2018 and the same date observed in 2017. At this location, there was a 27-day difference between the earliest and latest varieties, compared to a 25-day difference in 2018 and a 12-day difference in 2017.

 

Acknowledgments

The authors want to thank the Oklahoma Wheat Commission and the Oklahoma Wheat Research Foundation for providing partial funding for this research.

 

Seed Sources and Abbreviations

AGSECO = AGSECO Inc.

AgriMAXX = AgriMAXX Wheat

AgriPro = AgriPro|Syngenta Seeds

CROPLAN = CROPLAN by WinField United

Dyna-Gro = Dyna-Gro Seed

KWA = Kansas Wheat Alliance

LCS = Limagrain Cereal Seeds

OGI = Oklahoma Genetics Inc.

OSU = Oklahoma State University

PlainsGold = PlainsGold Seeds

TriCal = TriCal Superior Forage

Watley = Watley Seeds

WestBred = WestBred Wheat

 

  

Robert Calhoun

Senior Agriculturalist

 

Jeff Edwards

Department Head, Plant and Soil Sciences

 

Branden Watson

Graduate Research Assistant

 

Christopher Gillespie

Graduate Research Assistant

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